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Archaeo - astronomy
Lion Battling the Bull
Pisces the Fish
Academe Fights Back
heliocentric view
Orion the Hunter
Wiki Links -This Page
Babylonian Cosmology
Earth v. Sun Cosmology
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Mithras-rise & fall
Mon-the unicorn constellation
Mithras what's new
Great Ages
The se two epic myths of this era by the Babylonians and the Egyptians encode the precession

Orion the hunter is the brightest of all the constellations. You extend the line of Orion's belt to the right to find Taurus the Bull. On the opposite sides of the sky is Scorpius which is never seen with Orion, as when one rises the other sets.

Orion: this important and easily recognizable constellation marked an important position in the skies of 4000 BC. The group coincided with the spring equinox and marked the first day of the year. It is visible from every part of the globe.

At the center of Mithrasism both literally and figuratively is the bull-slaying scene or tauroctony. While Porphyry,  recorded that the cave pictured in the tauroctony was intended to be "an image of the cosmos." there is no written text, interpretations remain speculative with significant differences among scholars. However that there are only minor variations evident in over 500 representations of the Mithraic bull slaying scene indicates there is a specific interpretation leaving the field open to a spirited debate.

Syncretism was a feature of Roman religion, and that the Mysteries of Mithras became the Roman elite's religion till it was merged into Roman Catholicism creates an excellent forum for our reflection on the separation between church and science.

Most significantly for us, the debate  centers primarily over whether the scene communicates knowledge of the precession of the equinoxes. The current orthodox view, which has not been updated to account for the dramatic

The three Pyramids at Giza, located south-west of Cairo, are aligned exactly as the three middle stars of the constellation of Orion namely Alnitak, Alnilam and Mintaka match the  3 great pyramids of Khufu, Khafra, and Menkaura for the belt of Orion. This star position is  reflected prominently elsewhere as well. Most prominently by the great sphinx who reflects the star constellation Orion circa 10400BCE
Orion & Taurus -Winter Sky Tour

Taurus, Orion & Canis Major @youtube 30 sec
The constellation Canis Major is southeast of Orion and is marked by Sirius
Todays age of Aquarius is the polar opposite to this great age of Leo. Leo represents the sovereign rights of individuals to be monarchs of their realms, whereas Aquarius works with systems to address common problems, as in democracies.
Corvus, Crater & Hydra
Apollo was about to make a sacrifice to Zeus and sent the crow to fetch water from a running spring. The crow flew off with a bowl in its claws, but it rests lazily on the journey because it sees a fig tree by the pond.

"What matter if I wait only a few days until the fruit ripens?" the raven asked itself.  And it waited.  When the fruit ripened the raven then stayed several more days eating the fruit until it was all gone.  He then filled the cup with fresh spring water but realized that his master would be angry for the long delay.  Then he noticed a water-serpent nearby and grasped it in his claws.  So with cup in mouth and serpent dangling from his claws, the raven flew up to Heaven.  He explained to Apollo that the serpent had attacked him and that is what caused the delay.

But Apollo, one of whose skills was the art of prophecy, saw through the lie and condemned the crow to a life of thirst – which is perhaps one explanation for the rasping call of the crow.

     Apollo was so angry with the bird that he flung him, cup and serpent out of Heaven.  Today we see them together in the sky as Crater, the Cup, and Corvus, the Raven, perched on Hydra the serpent's back. The raven is depicted pecking at the water snake’s coils, as though attempting to move it so that the crow may reach the cup to drink. This myth gave rise to two alternate manes for Corvus as a constellation:  Avis Ficarius, or "the Fig Bird," and Emansor, or "One Who Lingers Too Long."   For the Greeks, this story explains why, of all birds, the raven does not carry water to its young.


The crow was the sacred bird of Apollo, who changed himself into one to flee from the monster Typhon when that immense creature threatened the gods.
It was one of the 48 constellations listed by Ptolemy, who only counted 7 stars although today we say there are 11 visible to the naked eye.
In Greek mythology, Canis Major and Canis Minor are the two dogs of Orion, The Great Hunter. The Little Dog, Canis Minor, was the favourite dog of Helen of Troy, whose prayers for its immortality were answered when it was placed among the stars.
Canis Minor is much smaller than its mate, Canis Major. Its principal star was named Procyon, Greek for "Before the Dog". Named such because it rises just before Sirius, the Dog Star in Canis Major.

Procyon is a very fortunate star, known to the Mesopotamians as "The Star of the Crossing of the Water-Dog", as it lies near their River of Heaven, the Milky Way. Procyon has a white dwarf companion star like Sirius.

Canis Major is one of the most striking of all the constellations. This is a large, bright cluster, even visible to the naked eye on dark nights. Just look for Sirius, The Dog Star. Sirius is the brightest star in the heavens. One legend has it, Sirius marks the diamond in the collar of Canis Major. Its name means 'sparkling' and 'scorching' as it is nearest to the sun during the height of the summer. At its distance of 2,350 light years it shines very brightly, with a luminosity of 8,000 of our suns
Canis Minor was considered to be the smaller of the two hunting dogs of Orion.
Link List
2 Dec 2002
A new proposition for redating the Mithraic tauroctony scene
E. Bon, M.M. irkovi, I. Milosavljevi
Mithraic experts who are opponents of David Ulansey's ideas on the origin of Mithraism include Roger Beck, Manfred Clauss and Helmut Waldmann
Academic counterpoint to starmap of precession by Gary D. Thompson
Star Chart 2214 BC a Mithrac Moment @siloam.net
"This book is devoted to establishing an equation for which there is not one piece of direct evidence: that Mithras, the god of the Roman mystery cult, is the constellation Orion."

Mithras-Orion: Greek Hero and Roman Army God by Michael P. Speidel
Author(s) of Review: Roger Beck Phoenix, Vol. 36, No. 2  (Summer, 1982), pp. 196-198

Compilation of book quotes showing variety of views on tauroctony meaning @ mystae.com
The "Mithras" Liturgy @ hermetic.com
from the Paris Codex
Edited and Translated by Marvin W. Meyer
the Liturgy reflects an important religious tendency of its day, a syncretistic piety utilizing astrology and magic and emphasizing the ecstatic ascent of the individual soul. Of additional interest is the relationship of the Mithras Liturgy to the previously known Hermetic literature and the recently discovered tractates from Nag Hammadi
Mithra @ crystalinks.com
Zodiac wheel
by Franz Cumont
Taurus Star Chart
Babylonian Astronomy @ burro.astr.
Trial of Galileo Galilei
Millennial Archetypes @lhillman.com
sacred geometry by crystalinks.com
The Orion Mystery: Unlocking the Secrets of the Pyramids
The Orion Mystery: Unlocking the Secrets of the Pyramids (Mass Market Paperback)


A computer planisphere can precisely date these astronomical eras and it appears that he era of Taurus (the bull) lasted until about 1800 BC, when Aries (the sheep) came into ascendance.
1800 BC + 2160 +2160 = 2100 AD indicating 2012 as being a bit too early

"We are all participants in a sublime drama, and the earth is its author."

world chakras for Astrological ages

Stranger than Fiction

Ardshir II (Xerex) worshipping Anahita  riding  Iranian lion with Mithra  rising from the lions back. The roots of this story, the Persian deities and astrological knowledge of the precession begin in Iraq and Iran where at the beginning of the next great age there exists the greatest possibility of a nuclear Armageddon or WWIII


Does the tauroctony, with its strong solar orientation to the cosmos also communicate the knowledge that the earth orbited around the sun?

It would appear that the knowledge that the sun was much larger than the earth and that the other planets revolved around the earth was available and discussed among academics who shared an ancient great age of astronomical science  systematizing the millennial star data of the Chaldeans and Babylonians. Mithraism was created by Stoics of Taurus and one of history's most prominet Stoics, Seneca did make a public pronouncement in favor of pursuing heliacal knowledge. It would not have been safe, even in pre-Christian times to espouse this view, such that the knowledge could best be passed on as part of a secret initiation. This area needs further examination as it appears to have been an area that no one has studied.

III. The Bull's Eye or

Dark Sun

The myth of the 2nd dark sun may also be part of the story of Mithras as the deity reflects a more powerful but sunlike relationship with the invincible sun. This may be the bull's eye or the cause of the wobble that creates the 25,920 great cycle of the earth


Egypt had predicted the death of civilization, and that the mouth of a fish would contain its seed. In the legend of Osiris, his body is destroyed by his brother Seth and the parts were scattered around Egypt. Egypt to the Egyptians was the whole celestial sphere, but experience lay on the path of the sun. The fourteen parts of the body of Osiris became the constellations of the zodiac.


The sky was represented by Nut, who was a female goddess. Osiris, the form of the Nile River, was Nut's opposite. Osiris was first and foremost the ruler of the Dead. Life came through resurrection. He was also the sun, the moon, and the stars of the present-day constellation Orion. He is basically the god of everything.

The main myth surrounding Osiris is that he was fathered by Geb, the Earth, and born of Nut. He became the king, organizer, and the spirit of Egypt. His sister and consort was Isis, represented in the sky by Sirius (the brightest star). Osiris' brother and eventual murderer was Set, who was associated with the Big Dipper.

discoveries of archeoastorology holds the 26,000 year earth cycle was discovered by Hipparchus [190 BC – ca. 120 BC] in the 2nd century BC. while the great library of Alexandria was fully flowering with knowledge of the prior ages.

Wikipedia is shines significant light on this evolving story as it introduces many new characters into a little known golden dawn of science and exchange between three greats centers of learning, Athens, Alexandria and Taursus [Turkey] between the 4th century BC and 300 AD. 


However, civilizations, particularly the Babylonian, Egyptian and Indian, had been tracking the movement of the night sky for millennia. We will likely never know for certain if they had observed the 1 degree change every 72 years but their surviving myths and monuments suggest as much.

It is not such a stretch to expect that the authors of Mithraicism, the Stoics of Taurus would have encoded this recently confirmed by recent academic knowledge into their mystery religion designed to make good men better in the pursuit of virtue.

Figures of Sol (Sun) and Luna (Moon) frequently appear at the two upper corners of the tauroctone scene. Also frequently depicted are  the twelve zodiacal signs and sometimes the the four winds. There are numerous inscriptions in which Mithras is called "the unconquered sun" (sol invictus).

The constellations common in the sky from about 4000 BC to 2000 BC were Taurus the Bull, Canis Majpr the Dog, Hydra the Snake, and Scorpio the Scorpion are prominent in the  tauroctony. Often appearing are two identical figures at either side of Mithras and Bull and appearing less often are Corvus the Raven, Leo the Lion and Crater, the Cup which were considered to lie on the Celestial Equator according to Roman celestial spheres.

There is a linguistic identity between the line of kings of ancient Persia named Mithras and Perseus and Persia. Mithras is clearly Perseus in his Phrygian cap.

The age old truce between religion and science has not completely emerged from the dark ages or even the heresy trials that resulted in Galileo receiving a life sentence for publishing his evidence supporting the sun and not the earth at the center of our solar system.

The historic figure given credit for discovery of the precession of the equinoxes is Hipparchus  who was also the first arbiter of whether the earth circled around the sun or the universe around the earth. The views and discoveries of Hipparchus are known mainly through Ptolemy (85-165 AD) whose astrological text was the standard textbook for the Romans, the Arab Science Golden Age  (750-1258 C.E.) and its reintroduction to Europe through the Moors in Spain.

Standard Mithraic Tauroctony

mithraic tauroctony

Detail of above showing dog and serpent drinking bull's blood
Detail of above showing dog and serpent drinking bull's blood
Detail of above showing scorpion attacking bull's testicles
Detail  showing scorpion attacking bull's testicles.

Here the twin torch bearers,have their lower legs crossed at twenty three degrees, the angle of the earth wobble which creates the precession

The Standard Mithraic Tauroctony or Bull Slaying Scene represents the beginning of the Age of Taurus around 4000 BC.  The identification of some constellations is clear enough: the bull is Taurus, the serpent Hydra, the dog Canis Major or Minor, the crow or raven Corvus, the goblet Crater and the scorpion is Scorpios.

Only recently has it been proposed that the two identical figures represent Gemini. Recent sky projections for the age of Taurus indicate that the only time that the prominent equatorial constellations of Orion and Libra were not at this position of equator was at the beginning of the Zodical great age of Taurus in BC. In addition this is also the only time that the constellation Perseus is present, which leading Mithraic scholar Dr. David Ulansey has suggested is represented by the god Mithras.

The tauroctony does not show Aries and Libra although these were in the equinoxes in Greco-Roman times. However the equinoxes last positions before that were in Taurus and Scorpius. Starting with Taurus and moving west, the equator passes through the following—and only the followings— constellations on or below the ecliptic:

Sol Invictus: There are numerous inscriptions in which Mithras is called "the unconquered sun" (sol invictus). Mithraic iconography often portrays Mithras involved in various activities in conjugation with the sun god Helios or Sol. Many of the scenes represent Mithras as a power superior to Helios or Sol. This is a reference to Mithras controlling the entire cosmic structure, a power greater than that of any other divinity or mere planet even if it is the sun.



An explanation for the missing constellations
 of Orion and Libra

It's 4000: BC!

"Assuming that the figures of the central icon of the Mithraic cult - the scene of tauroctony (bull slaying) - represent equatorial constellations at the time when the spring equinox was placed somewhere between Taurus and Aries, it is difficult to explain why some equatorial constellations (Orion and Libra) were not included in the Mithraic icons
A simulation of the sky at the times in which the spring equinox was in the constellation of Taurus, only a small area of spring equinox positions permits to exclude these two constellations, with all other representations of equatorial constellations (Taurus, Canis Minor, Hydra, Crater, Corvus, Scorpio) included. These positions of the spring equinox occurred at the beginning of the age of Taurus, and included Gemini as an equatorial constellation.
Two of the main figures in the Mithraic icons are two identical figures, usually represented on the each side of the bull, wearing phrygian caps and holding torches. Their names, Cautes and Cautopates, and their looks may indicate that they represent the constellation of Gemini. In that case the main icon of Mithraic religion could represent an event that happened around 4000 BC, when the spring equinox entered the constellation of Taurus. Also, this position of equator contains Perseus as an equatorial constellation. Ulansey suggested that the god Mithras is identified with the constellation Perseus. In that case, all figures in the main scene would be equatorial constellations.

Original Paper: A new proposition for redating the Mithraic tauroctony scene
by E. Bon, M.M. irkovi, I. Milosavljevi ©2002

The Lion Battling the Bull  

"In a well-reasoned research paper, "The Earliest History of the Constellations in the Near East and the Motif of the Lion-Bull Combat," historian of science Willy Hartner showed that the ancient symbol of the lion battling the bull actually illustrated the fiery death of Taurus in the glow of the setting Sun. Leo, the Lion, triumphantly commanded the meridian as the Bull went down. Hartner tracked this theme back to Elam, in what is now southern Iran. The lion plays matador on an Elamite seal from about 4000 B.C.

"New Stone Age farmers saw seasonal transition in this celestial event. In the fourth millennium B.C., the Bull succumbed in early February, a time that coincided with the year's first plowing and the start of the agricultural cycle. The Bull's sacrifice was the prelude to the next renewal in the rhythm of growth. "Even though the slowly wobbling axis of the Earth gradually precesses the stars out of their familiar seasons, in 500 B.C. the Achaemenid dynasty of Persian kings was still putting the lion-bull combat to work as an emblem of seasonal sacrifice. By then, however, Taurus was going down in flames closer to the time of the vernal equinox, in March.

Scorpion battling Orion
Myth has it that Orion was killed by the sting of a Scorpion. In order to honor him and protect him from his enemy he rises in the east as his enemy, the Scorpion sets in the West. Orion is never seen at the same time as the Scorpion. The Scorpion is identified with the constellation of Scorpius, halfway around the sky from Orion.

There are many stories about why  the Scorpion was sent to kill Orion but they all end with Orion later in the year rising as the Scorpion sets.

These illustrations from Hamlet's Mill,   the landmark precessional essay illustrate the Scorpion goddess in Mayan and Egyptian mythology.
 The Bull's twilight death roughly coincided with the Persian Empire's New Year equinox festival, and a key myth in the Zoroastrian religion of ancient Persia involves the death of the Bull of Creation at the hands of Ahriman, the Lord of Evil."
     - E.C. Krupp, "Throwing the Bull"


In 1989 David Ulansey convincingly suggested  that the mythological synthesis and expression of the precession of the equinoxes as expressed by the tauroctony took place in the university town of Tarsus, the birthplace of St. Paul and a center of Stoic philosophy using .Tarsus had a large population of Persians, was ruled by Mithradates VI, whose name means "given by Mithra," under his patronage the Cilician pirates, who were known for disseminating the worship of Mithras, operated.

According to Ulansey, Mithras was represented by the constellation Perseus, and is the deity responsible for initiating the precession. Perseus position above Taurus, with his left knee of the bull as he plunges the dagger into the bull's right shoulder initiates the cosmic shift of the celestial equator. Only the smaller community of scientists would have known about the precession and only the still smaller group of Stoics of Tarsus would have recognized it as divine revelation best understood as revealed ritual.

"The answer to this question lies in the fact that the phenomenon of the precession of the equinoxes was unknown throughout most of antiquity: it was discovered for the first time around 128 B.C. by the great Greek astronomer Hipparchus........."
---David Ulansey
"For the constellations pictured in the standard tauroctony have one thing in common: namely, they all lay on the celestial equator as it was positioned during the epoch immediately preceeding the Greco-Roman "Age of Aries." During that earlier age, which we may call the "Age of Taurus," lasting from around 4,000 to 2,000 B.C., the celestial equator passed through Taurus the Bull ... The Mithraic tauroctony, then, was apparently designed as a symbolic representation of the astronomical situation that obtained during the Age of Taurus.
David Ulansey. In an online article excerpted from his book, The Origins of the Mithraic Mysteries: Cosmology and Salvation in the Ancient World, Ulansey answered two pregnant questions:
Why not focus on Pisces the Fish?

 Further studies via David Ulansey

For Mithras online, David Ulansky is the most quoted scholar with highest rated, non en.wikipedia site by google search. His well referenced articles are availablehttp://www.zum.de/Faecher/G/BW/Landeskunde/rhein/geschichte/roemer/mithras/felsgeburt2.jpg online as well as a recent appendix defending his notion that Hipparchus should be known as the discover of precession of the equinoxes when what little we retain of what he wrote is less than compelling. [more @appendix4]

Of greater interest to those looking forward was his response to the question of Mithras not focusing on their own role as stewards closing out the great age of Aries and passing the baton to Pisces well represented by  monotheistic Christian fish. His response was the dominance of a "universally accepted standard" from Babylonian "System B." In addition he adds:

"any ancient astronomer who learned of Hipparchus's discovery of the precession and who held to the standard location of the equinox at 8° Aries could only have concluded that the Age of Aries still had 800 years remaining to it. "

Finally he makes the point, that unlike the present age which has forgotten the lessons of the ancients combination of science with spirituality the Greeks and Romans "felt that a deep spiritual potency was inherent in great antiquity" and honoring this momentous event could only add power and significance to the rituals.

[more @ David Ulansky's site /appendix3 ]

Galileo condemned to life imprisonment



On 22 June 1633 Galileo was forced to kneel in front of the Inquisition and recant his belief in the Copernican planetary system and the motion of the Earth.
He was condemned to life imprisonment, ostensibly for having disobeyed a 1616 injunction by Cardinal Bellarmino "...not to defend or teach the Copernican doctrine...".
The  sentence was commuted to perpetual house arrest, which was rigidly upheld to the end of Galileo's life. Galileo's Dialogue was also put on the Index of Prohibited Books, together with the books by Copernicus and Kepler treating of the heliocentric system, where they all remained until 1835. In 1992 did the Roman Catholic Church formally admitted to having erred in dealing with Galileo.
"The error of the theologians of the time when they maintained the centrality of the earth was to think that our understanding of the physical world's structure was in some way imposed by the literal sense of Sacred Scripture....

– Pope John Paul II L'Osservatore Romano N. 44 1264 - 4th November 1992



Academe Fights Back:

by Dr Shepherd Simpson, Astrological Historian

When did the Modern Publishing on Ancient Precession Begin?

"These ideas were formulated quite recently, and show an obvious line of descent from Jung's ideas on Astrological Ages. The trend started with two books which appeared one to two decades after Jung's ideas were published:

Sacred Science: The King of Pharaonic Theocracy [published 1961], R. A. Schwaller de Lubicz, which covered Precession in ancient Egypt, and,

Hamlets' Mill: A Essay Investigating the Origins of Human Knowledge and Its Transmission Through Myth [published 1969], Giorgio De Santillana, Hertha Von Dechend , which covered
Precession in the Mesopotamian civilisations.

These have been followed over several decades by dozens of books on a similar theme, that an ancient civilization knew of
Precession and therefore there is a relevance to us. More recently, other authors have extended the concept to pre-Colombian Western hemisphere civilisations.

6:  Publishing and Precession after Jung... 
6a:  Ancient Egypt and Precession 
6b:  Ancient Babylonia and Precession 
6c:  Mithraism and Precession 
6d:  2012 and the Maya Calendar 

Academe Fights Back: Please see Ancient Egypt and Precession and Ancient Babylonia and Precession for a summaries of why Egyptologists and specialists in Mesopotamian history don't think either of these two ancient cultures had an understanding of the Movement of the Ages. [Please see Mithraism and Precession for an analysis of the arguments that the later Roman Mithras religion had precession as part of its central mystery.]

Publishing and Precession after Jung...

© Dr Shepherd Simpson, Astrological Historian

We  gratefully acknowledge Dr. Simpson for not only his well articulated evidence and are pleased to find his quest for truth in space as part of the new science of Archaeoastronomy has made his web site a source of discovery and delight for us. While his instinct to side with the intransigence of the academic orthodoxy is still very apparent, there is much respect from him for acknowledging the primacy of the great ages in organizing the great civilizations through art and mythology.

From 2003 Archaeoastronomy was no longer published as a separate journal but was incorporated into enlarged issues of Journal for the History of Astronomy

 With regards to his central point that the age of Aquarius is 600 years in the future, he has good company as our survey will show. One has to acknowledge that since the constellations along the ecliptic varied in size, defining 12 equal signs of 30° each did require an arbitrary assignment of boundaries roughly corresponding to the ecliptic constellations. Furthermore, the ancient invention of the zodiac system where the signs of the zodiac do not necessarily coincide with the actual constellations for which they are named is a strong indicator of the use of the precession of the equinoxes as the central organizing wisdom in and of itself.

"Which planet makes its 'house' in Scorpius [in modern terms the planetary ruler] is even more complex. In the Age of Taurus, 4000 years ago, Leo was the Summer Solstice sign in the northern hemisphere and hence the Sun made its 'house' in Leo and the rest of the signs followed from this starting point. But by the time of Ptolemy, in the Age of Aries, Cancer was the Solstice sign and should have been assigned the Sun. However Ptolemy assigns Leo the Sun. Even Ptolemy kept out-dated astrology, as we do today."
Scorpious by Dr. S.S.

The first millennium's first & last published view supporting a heliocentric view of the cosmos

Seneca (4 BC-65 AD) - Staatliche Museen, Berlin

Lucius Annaeus Seneca (the Younger)
(4 BC-65 AD) In 49 AD, he was brought out of exile to tutor
 the young Nero. In 65 AD the Stoic dutifully followed the order by Emperor Nero to commit suicide

"It will be proper to discuss this, in order that we may know whether the universe revolves and the earth stands still, or the universe stands still and the earth rotates.
For there have been those who asserted that it is we whom the order of nature causes to move without our being aware of it, and that risings and settings do not occur by the virtue of the motion of the heaven, but that we ourselves rise and set. The subject is worthy of consideration, in order that we may know in what condition we live, whether the abode allotted to us is the most slowly or the most quickly moving, whether God moves everyting around us or ourselves instead."

Mithras is the god of light, and was often worshipped along with or as Sol Invictus, the conquering sun. The age of Aquarius can best be understood as a new collective understanding of the space age.

The most recent addition to the story of the tauroctony is the view that the two identical twins at either side represent not just the two equinoxes but the constellation Gemini thereby indicating the passing of the ages from Gemini to Taurus around 4000 BC rather than the great age of Taurus.

It has only been since 2003, when The Da Vinci Code author Dan Brown brought into the mainstream of the collective conscious important chapters in the true history of the heretical religious traditions that have played as vital a role in society. The record shows the power supports power, as the established faiths and those who enjoy the support of the power structure in academia and elected office continuously try to suppress new ideas not preciously supported. Brown's next book is expected to bring to the collective conscious much of the information linked to this page particularly with regards to the Masonic tradition's affinity for temples and their sacred sciences of numerology, geometry, and cosmology.

Over a quarter of century ago, the Roman Catholic church admitted in 1992 it erred when it repressed the great Galileo from discussing the position of the sun in the solar system yet the fierceness of the tenured types to dispute the obvious conclusions of advanced sciences among ancient civilizations remains in contrast to the more cautious words from the church despite the new evidence given to us by computers generating star charts that match up with the ancient stories and monuments. It is time for the academic orthodoxy to open up to interdisciplinary inquiries into closely guarded  territories. A litmus test for us can be when the tenured types begin to acknowledge the Mithraic Tauroctony's depiction of the most popular theme in the mythology of antiquity, the Age of Taurus passing to the Old Testament times of Aries. This is a central theme of the Babylonian myth Gilgamesh and appears well engrained in numerous instances very alive today in many cultures including the Carnaval tradition of the Boeuf Gras

The growth of Archaeoastronomy as a discipline needs to be supplemented by a return to a greater understanding of our need for a relationship with the sacred. Materialistic thinking has limitations. A good place to begin is the great seal on the back of every US dollar acknowledging the prophetic messages  of the great pyramid.

Now we are not merely to stick knowledge on to the soul: we must incorporate it into her; the soul should not be sprinkled with knowledge but steeped in it.


The Deep Sky Wonders of Taurus
Orion the Hunter is of great antiquity. Being so bright and distinctive and on the celestial equator, the pattern of stars that forms Orion was recognized as a coherent constellation by many ancient civilizations, though with different representations and mythologies.

 It was known to the Sumerians of Mesopotamia as Uru-anna or the Light of Heaven. It was identified with the great Sumerian hero Gilgamesh, who was seen as battling the Bull of Heaven, Gut-anna, which we see as the constellation of Taurus. In the sky Orion carries an unbreakable bronze club. In his other hand he bears the pelt of a lion.

The ancient Sumerians saw this star pattern as forming part of an image of a shepherd (sometimes in a chariot) with his sheep and in some versions a shepherd's crook, while in China, Orion was one of the 28 lunar mansions Sieu (Xiu) (宿). Known as Shen (參), literally meaning "three", it is believed to be named so for the three stars located in Orion's belt. (See Chinese constellation)

The stars were associated with Osiris, the god of death and underworld, by the ancient Egyptians. The Giza pyramid complex, which consists of the Great Pyramid of Giza, the Pyramid of Khafre and the Pyramid of Menkaure, is said to be a sky-map of the Belt of Orion, that is, of Osiris.

The coming of the
"end of times"
as written in the Bible
The dawning of
the new world order

An engraving inside an onyx-stone-eye in a Marduk statue that might depict Nebechandrezzar II
The modern Zodiac owes its creation to the Babylonians. Tablet No. 77,821 in the British Museum which dates to ~500 B.C. agrees very closely with the present Zodiac. Even earlier documents, such as the Mul Apin tablets and astrolabes contain descriptions of constellations which conform to some, if not all, of the twelve that form the modern Zodiac. Thus, the Zodiac was systematized about the time of the great Nebuchadnezzar II in almost its present form.

Men occasionally stumble over the truth, but most of them pick themselves up and carry on as if nothing ever happened."
---Winston Churchill

Discovery of precession
Astrological age
In astrology, an astrological age has usually been defined by the constellation in which the Sun actually appears at the vernal equinox. This is the method that Hipparchus appears to have applied around 127 BCE when he discovered precession. Like nearly everything else related to the astrological ages, Hipparchus' approach remains contentious.
The identification of the Tauroctony constellations is clear enough: the bull is Taurus, the serpent Hydra, the dog Canis Major or Minor, the crow or raven Corvus, the goblet Crater, the lion Leo, and, more speculatively, the wheat-blood the star Spica. The two identical figures represent Gemini.
Current knowledge of the mysteries is almost entirely limited to what can be deduced from the iconography in the mithraea that have survived. In the Mithras Liturgy, where Helios rules the elements; spells and incantations invoking Helios among the Greek Magical Papyri; In antiquity, texts refer to "the mysteries of Mithras", and to its adherents, as "the mysteries of the Persians."[1] Mithras himself could be associated with Perseus, whose constellation is above that of the bull. Mithras may have been seen as the Orphic creator-god Phanes who emerged from the world egg at the beginning of time, bringing the universe into existence.
The celestial equator is a great circle on the imaginary celestial sphere, in the same plane as the Earth's equator. In other words, it is a projection of the terrestrial equator out into space. As result of the Earth's axial tilt, the celestial equator is inclined by ~23.5° with respect to the ecliptic plane.
Babylonian Cosmology

Mesopotamian astronomy

The records of the Babylonians are among the oldest written records of ancient peoples' interests in celestial bodies and the earliest date from around 2500 B.C. Classical sources frequently use the term Chaldeans for the astronomers of Mesopotamia, who were, in reality, priest-scribes specializing in astrology and other forms of divination. Centuries of Babylonian observations of celestial phenomena are recorded in the series of cuneiform tablets known as the Enūma Anu Enlil. The MUL.APIN, contains catalogues of stars and constellations as well as schemes for predicting heliacal risings and the settings of the planets, lengths of daylight measured by a water-clock, gnomon, shadows, and intercalations.
Naburimannu (fl. 6th-3rd century BC), Kidinnu (d. 330 BC), Berossus (3rd century BC), and Sudines (fl. 240 BC) are known to have had a significant influence on Hipparchus and  Ptolemy. Aristarchus_of_
Samos apparently lost the debate despite the efforts of Seleucus of Seleucia (b. 190 BC).[4][5][6] a century later to advance a heliocentric model where the Earth rotated around its own axis which in turn revolved around the Sun. According to Plutarch, Seleucus even proved the heliocentric system, but it is not known what arguments he used. The Geocentric likely entered Greek astronomy orthodoxy through
Hipparchus who work was made known by Plutarch.

Nebuchadrezzar II,(c 630-562 BC), was a ruler of Babylon in the Chaldean Dynasty, who reigned c. 605 BC-562 BC. He is famous for his monumental building within his capital of Babylon, his role in the Book of Daniel, and his construction of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon and known among Christians and Jews for his conquests of Judah and Jerusalem.
Kos & Rhodes

Kos & Rhodes were famous for their schools of higher learning which shared masters with the great University of Alexandria. Off the coast of Asia Minor, Kos is best known as the home to  physician Hippocratesas Kos became a favorite resort for the education of the princes of the Ptolemaic dynasty [305 BC to 30 BC.]Berossus [340 BCE - ?]  ran a school of astrology here and became famous as a statue of him was erected in Athens. He is best known for his astrological writings. Sumerian king_list which communicate knowledge of the precession of the equinoxes.

Rhodes was a commercial center with coins that could be found throughout the Mediterranean.  Athenian rhetorician Aeschines who formed a school at Rhodes; Apollonius of Rhodes; the astronomers Hipparchus and Geminus,  The erected a statue of their sun god, Helios, the statue now known as Colossus of Rhodes. In 164 BC, Rhodes signed a treaty with Rome, and became a major schooling center for Roman noble families. In 1309 the Byzantine era came to an end when the island was subjugated by forces of the Knights Hospitaller. The Knights would later move their base of operations to Malta

The schools of Tarsos rivalled Athens and Alexandria.  In his time the library of Tarsus held 200,000 books, a huge collection of scientific works. Pompey subjected it to Rome and Tarsus became capital of the Roman province of Cilicia (Caput Ciliciae), the metropolis where the governor resided. To flatter Julius Caesar, it took the name Juliopolis; it was here that Cleopatra and Mark Antony met, the scene of the celebrated feasts they gave during the construction of their fleet. In 66 BC, the inhabitants received Roman citizenship.

When the province of Cilicia was divided, Tarsus remained the civil and religious metropolis of Cilicia Prima

Earth v. Sun Cosmology

Ptolemy (85-165 AD) was the Librarian of Alexandria who resurrected Heraclides geocentric theory and combined it with centuries of data on planetary motions  formulating a complete description of the Solar System that explained/predicted the apparent motions. The Ptolemic system began the 1st paradigm or framework for our understanding of Nature. His system favoring earth centered Hipparchus over solar centered Aristarchus became orthodoxy until the 16th century

Hipparchus [190 BC – ca. 120 BC]
Most of what is known about Hipparchus comes from Ptolemy's  Almagest, since nothing written by Hipparchus has survived. His great contribution to science is perhaps due to the mathematical techniques accumulated over centuries by the Chaldeans from Babylonia. Hipparchus seems to have been the first to exploit Babylonian astronomical knowledge and techniques systematically
[6 He possessed a trigonometric table, and appears to have solved some problems of spherical trigonometry. With his solar and lunar theories and his trigonometry, he may have been the first to develop a reliable method to predict solar eclipses. His other reputed achievements include the discovery of precession, the compilation of the first comprehensive star catalog of the western world, and possibly the invention of the astrolabe, also of the armillary sphere which first appeared during his century and was used by him during the creation of the catalog.
Ptolemy, [83 – 161 AD] was an  Egyptian mathematician, [some say Greek] geographer, astronomer, and astrologer who flourished in Alexandria, Roman Egypt. He was often known in later Arabic sources as "the Upper Egyptian",[7] suggesting that he may have had origins in southern Egypt.[5] Ptolemy is also known to have used Babylonian astronomical data.[8][9] His adoption of the Hipparchus  geocentric model for his textbook of mathematical astronomy Almagest was accepted as correct for over 1500 years until Copernicus
Europe would eventually rediscover Ptolemy from translations of Arabic versions since the Church had successfully exercised
almost complete control over academic thought and so much  knowledge from the past had been lost in Western Europe.
The first acknowledged use of trigonometry came from the Hellenistic mathematician Hipparchus[1] circa 150 BC, who compiled a trigonometric table using the sine for solving triangles. Ptolemy further developed trigonometric calculations circa 100 AD.
However Indian mathematicians were the pioneers of variable computations algebra for use in astronomical calculations along with trigonometry. Lagadha (circa 1350-1200 BC) is the first person thought to have used geometry and trigonometry for astronomy, in his Vedanga Jyotisha.
Porphyry [233–c. 309] was a Syrian Neoplatonic philosopher, writer of standard textbook on logic for at least a millennium, an opponent of Christianity and defender of Paganism
The Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh depicts the killing of the Bull of Heaven. When the heroes of the new Indo-European culture arrived in the Aegean basin, they faced off with the ancient Sacred Bull on many occasions, and always overcame it, in the form of the myths that have survived.
Dionysus was another god of resurrection who was strongly linked to the bull. In a cult hymn from Olympia, at a festival for Hera, Dionysus is also invited to come as a bull, "with bull-foot raging."
In the history of astronomy, a great year may refer to any real or imagined cycle with astronomical or astrological significance. The Greeks sometimes called the period of time required for the naked eye planets to realign, a great year. It was an important concept in ancient Stoicism
The north and south celestial poles are the two imaginary points in the sky where the Earth's axis of rotation, "infinitely extended", intersects the imaginary rotating sphere of stars called the celestial sphere.
Farnese_Atlas  one of the many great masterpieces at the Museo Archeologico Nazionale in Naples, Italy. It is a 2nd-century Roman marble copy of a Hellenistic sculpture of Atlas kneeling with a globe weighing heavily on his shoulders. In 2005 Dr. Bradley E. Schaefer,  presented an analysis concluding that here was Hipparchus' long lost star catalog.
Joseph Justus Scaliger ( 1540-1609) French religious leader and scholar, known for expanding the notion of classical history from Greek and Ancient Roman history to include Persian, Babylonian, Jewish and Ancient Egyptian history. Scaliger was alone for many centuries in his investigation of ancient non Greco-Roman systems of epochs, calendars and astrology.
The renaissance came to astronomy with the work of Nicolaus Copernicus, who proposed a heliocentric system, in which the planets revolved around the Sun and not the Earth. His De revolutionibus provided a full mathematical discussion of his system, using the geometrical techniques that had been traditional in astronomy since before the time of Ptolemy. His work was later defended, expanded upon and modified by Galileo Galilei and Johannes Kepler. Isaac Newton developed further ties between physics and astronomy through his law of universal gravitation.
The_Da Vinci_Code, the 14th best-selling book of all-time which focused attention on Vatican secrets.The mystery/ detective novel by American by author Dan Brown, explores the Holy Grail legend, the role of Mary Magdalene as a symbol of the sacred feminine in the history of Christianity, a mysterious 1000 year old secret society called the Priory of Sion,the Knights Templar history and the controversial Roman Catholic organization Opus Dei.
Giordano Bruno (1548, Nola – February 17, 1600, Rome) was an Italian philosopher, priest, cosmologist, and occultist. Bruno is known for his mnemonic system based upon organized knowledge and as an early proponent of the idea of an infinite and homogeneous universe. Burnt at the stake as a heretic by the Roman Inquisition, Bruno is seen by some as the first "martyr [1] for science." At his trial he listened to the verdict on his knees, then stood up and said: "Perhaps you, my judges, pronounce this sentence against me with greater fear than I receive it."
End Times wikipedia article as of 8OCT-2007
Early traces of a heliocentric model are found in several anonymous Vedic Sanskrit texts composed in ancient India before the 7th century BCE. Additionally, the Indian astronomer and mathematician Aryabhata anticipated elements of Copernicus' work by over a thousand years.
Vedic period
Vedas arguably the oldest sacred texts that are still used
In Sanskrit, mitra means 'friend' or friendship' like mihr in Persian. In Zend, mithra means precisely the 'contract' which eventually became deified.
Scholasticism originally began to reconcile the philosophy of the ancient classical philosophers with medieval Christian theology
Arkaim is an amazing  Russian Archaeoastronomy site compared to Stonehenge only recently discovered


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