Masonic History
Masonic History  presents  presents

This Page
Black Friday
2007 observes the 700th year of Friday the 13th
Ban on Masonic Lodges
Secret Teachings
As above, so is below
Origin of Baseball
Priest, Magi, Templar
Eye of Mind
Great Seal
Next Page
Masons & Initiations
Rise & Fall of Mithras
Unicorn constellation
Night stars
Pyramids monuments in harmony with the universe
Phrygian Cap
Myth and Magic
Great Ages
Jospeh Campbell
Sacred Sciences

Freemasonry came out of Scotland as revamped Mithraism spurred by the influx of the
 outlawed Knights Templar

The history of Scotland as a totally independent nation shows King of the Scots beset by the encroachments of the English and the defiant independence of the clans. Rarely in the course of Scottish history was the whole country under the actual rule of the monarch.
Image:Hadrian's wall at Greenhead Lough.jpg
Hadrian's Wall is a stone and turf fortification built by the Roman Empire across the width of modern-day England to prevent military raids by the Pictish tribes or ancient Scots to the north who they declined to conquer.

The Picti copied the Romans in many ways from kilts to bagpipes. The wall across the island of Great Britian insulated the North from much of the dictates of church and state.

 Three temples to Mithras have been found on Hadrian's Wall at Housesteads, Carrawburgh and Rudchester. The excavated material from all three is now in the Museum of Antiquities where there is also a reconstruction of a Mithraeum based on the first temple at Carrawburgh. 

It has been suggested that Mithraism could have survived indefinitely in independent Scotland where there was an affinity for Roman practices as well as a fierce independence.

Masonry is a complex fraternal organization with many similarities to Mithraism which came out of Scotland in the late 17th century. It is possible that surviving cults of Mithraism in Scotland became associated with the craft of masonry as well as liberated members of the Knights Templar to create the modern form of Masonry which has changed little over the centuries.  Masonry shares stories with the Knights Templar who are said to have successfully sought refuge when persecuted by King Philip of France and Pope Clement early in the 14th century.

Castle building was a large scale industry for much of Europe's history during the last great age of Pisces.

With the wages of a true mason much higher than  mere bricklayers, and masons moving around to follow the work, which would be particularly the case for Scotsmen who would likely first head south to build castles for the better off English. There would have been an obvious temptation for one unqualified to pass himself off as a mason. To prevent this, the masons developed secret handshakes and ways of knocking at the lodge's door, to prevent pretenders from passing themselves off as true masons. This would be the era of operative masonry, when the lodges were places of repose for qualified stone masons.

BoardFree-Masonry initiates and teaches for three levels of the craft 1. Apprentice 2.Fellow Craft  3.Master Mason  These are taught through… An allegory that refers to one Hyrum Abiff and the unfinished completion of the allegorical Temple at Jerusalem. Hyrum Abiff is killed by the treachery of three fellow masons in the allegory and his work remains uncompleted.

This allegory also applies to the Knights Templar who were trying to “restore” the fullness of Christianity and the Temple of Solomon’s ordinances before they were disbanded and destroyed. As an underground organization, the Templars relied on handshakes and other symbols that would not be recognizable to outsiders; but, would help them to recognize one another. In fact there are more people who believe that the acertain number of Knights took refuge in Scotland, and there preserved the existence of the Order.

The Knights Templar were not only crusading soldiers known for their red cross against a white background but also the first bankers. Non-warrior members of the Order managed a large economic infrastructure throughout Christendom, innovating many financial techniques that were an early form of banking, and building numerous fortifications across Europe and the Holy Land.

The Templars' success was tied closely to that of the Crusades. When the Holy Land was lost and the Crusaders suffered crushing defeats, support for the Order's existence faded. Rumors about the Templars' secret initiation ceremony created mistrust, and King Philip IV of France, deeply in debt to the Order from his war with England, began pressuring Pope Clement V
 into suppressing the order on spurious grounds.

Team cracks chapel's music 'code' BBC - April 30, 2007
A father and son team from Edinburgh think they have found a secret piece of music hidden in carvings at a famous medieval chapel in Midlothian. Stuart Mitchell, 41 and his father Tommy, 75, said they had deciphered a musical code locked in the stones of Rosslyn Chapel for more than 500 years.

"If these patterns and cubes had not contained music anything we turned up would have been purely random and would not have sounded hauntily beautiful."

Stuart Mitchell said the tunes could have been hidden because knowledge of harmonics may have been seen as dangerous, even heretical, by 15th Century church authorities.

He said: "What we have here is a recorded piece of music, it is almost like a compact disc from the 15th Century."

History of_the
First Crusade
Originally their stated mission was to protect pilgrims on their journey to visit The Holy Places. They approached King Baldwin II of Jerusalem, who allowed them to set up headquarters on the southeastern side of the Temple Mount, inside the Al Aqsa Mosque.
The Temple Mount is sacred to the Jews, Christians, and Muslims, as an important location throughout history. It is believed to be the location of the ruins of the Temple of Solomon, the legendary storage place for the Ark of the Covenant, and the probable Mount Moriah, where Abraham is said to have come to sacrifice his son Isaac. It is also an important location to Muslims. At that location in the 7th Century, Caliph Abd al-Malik had built a major Islamic shrine, the Dome of the Rock, at the center of which was the rock from which Muhammad had, as described in legend, briefly ascended to heaven to receive the Islamic prayers.
Rumors about the Templars' secret initiation ceremony created mistrust, and King Philip IV of France, deeply in debt to the Order, began pressuring Pope Clement V to take action. On Friday, October 13, 1307, King Philip had many of the Order's members in France arrested, tortured into "confessions", and burned at the stake. In 1312, Pope Clement, under continuing pressure from King Philip, forcibly disbanded the entire Order.
Most, however, were not so brutal as the French. In England many Knights were arrested and tried, but not found guilty.

Much of the Templar property outside of France was transferred by the Pope to the Knights Hospitaller, and many surviving Templars were also accepted into the Hospitallers. In Spain, where the king of Aragon was against giving the heritage of the Templars to Hospitallers (as commanded by Clement V), the Order of Montesa took Templar assets.

Little is known about what became of the Templar's fleet of ships. There is record of 18 Templar ships being in port at La Rochelle, France on October 12, 1307 (the day before Friday the 13th). But the next day, the fleet had vanished.
The order continued to exist in Portugal, simply changing its name to the Order of Christ. This group was believed to have contributed to the first naval discoveries of the Portuguese. Prince Henry the Navigator led the Portuguese order for 20 years until the time of his death.
In the end, the only three accused of heresy directly by the papal commission were Jacques de Molay, Grand Master of the Knights Templar, and his two immediate subordinates; they were to renounce their heresy publicly, when de Molay regained his courage and proclaimed the order's and his innocence along with Geoffrey de Charney. The two were arrested by French authorities as relapsed heretics and burned at the stake in 1314.
The denomination with the longest history of objection to Freemasonry is the Catholic Church. The objections raised by the Catholic Church are based on the allegation that Masonry teaches a naturalistic deistic religion which is in conflict with Church doctrine.[51] A number of Papal pronouncements have been issued against Freemasonry. The first was Pope Clement XII's In Eminenti, April 28, 1738; the most recent was Pope Leo XIII's Ab Apostolici, October 15, 1890. The 1917 Code of Canon Law explicitly declared that joining Freemasonry entailed automatic excommunication.[52] The 1917 Code of Canon Law also forbade books friendly to Freemasonry.
Manly Palmer Hall wrote highly regarded "The Secret Teachings of All Ages: An Encyclopedic Outline of Masonic, Hermetic, Qabbalistic and Rosicrucian Symbolical Philosophy", in 1928 when he was just 27 years old.
Benjamin Franklin
As a leader of the Enlightenment, he gained the recognition of scientists and intellectuals across Europe. His success in securing French military and financial aid was a great contributor to the American victory over Britain. At the Constitutional Convention in 1787, when the convention seemed headed for disaster due to a vitoral debate, the elderly Franklin displayed his conviction that was intimately involved in human affairs by requesting that each day's session begin with prayers. Franklin recalled the days of the Revolutionary War, when the American leaders assembled in prayer daily, seeking "divine guidance" from the "Father of lights." He then rhetorically asked, "And have we now forgotten that powerful friend? Or do we imagine that we no longer need his assistance?" [16]. the only Founding Father who signed all four of the documents that created our republic; -the Declaration of Independence,
-the treaty with France,
-the peace treaty with Britain,
and -the Constitution.

Ankh is known as the Egyptian Cross, the key of life giving a symbolic representation of both Physical and Eternal life. It is also known as the original cross

Adam Weishaupt founded the Order of Illuminati. radical offshoot of The Enlightenment, and became increasingly liberal in his religious and political views, favoring deism and a kind of millennial natural order that swept aside states and organized religion. A century after his death, occultist interest in Weishaupt and the Bavarian Illuminati picked up through the writings of Aleister Crowley.
No Sin in Symbols
Symbols of Freemasonry @ altreligion
Freemasonry: The Legacy of the Ancient Egyptians
The Triple Tau  important symbol of Royal Arch Masonry
---Stargate city
Biblio symbolic and geometric link between the area of Washington D.C., the capital of the United States, and the area on Mars known as Cydonia ["exposing the lies and evils of Freemasonry"]
Museum of Antiquities in Newcastle-on-Tyne
Masons Ancient Egyptian Origins @
Sacred number Dictionary @ experience
Freemasons $ 2012 @ soulsof
Speak aloud the word "three" in English or most any language past or present and you'll hear its relation to words like "through" and "threshold" and the prefix trans ("across," "penetrate"). The leap to "three," as its linguistic root tells us, takes us over a threshold and through past polarized limits of the Dyad. Whenever there are three, as the three knights, three musketeers, three wise men, or three wishes, there is throughness, rebirth, transformation, and success.
---Michael S. Schneider author  A Beginner's Guide to Constructing the Universe,


The Origin of Black Friday ---Friday the 13th
On Friday, October 13, 1307, King Philip had many of the Order's members in France arrested, tortured into "confessions", and burned at the stake. In 1312, Pope Clement, under continuing pressure from King Philip, forcibly disbanded the entire Order.

On October 13, 2007, the 700th anniversary of Black Friday the 13th, The Vatican declared Knights Templar innocent of the crimes for which their leaders were burned at the stake and the order disbanded.

That the 13th day of the month, when a Friday is particularly unlucky may belong to another age. The space age is often considered the event to mark the new Aquarian great age we are inaugurating now. In 1970, the Apollo 13 lunar spacecraft experienced an explosion that almost wrecked it. Yet it returned to Earth safely, unlike any other manned spacecraft that has exploded. The Apollo 13 spacecraft, was named 'Aquarius' the event occurred at 1:13 in the afternoon (1313 military time) on April 13, 1970. 

On October 13, 2007 the Vatican announced it is publishing only 799 copies of the minutes of trials against the Templars, Processus Contra Templarios - Papal Inquiry into the Trial of the Templars, which will sell for €5,900 (£4,115).

A letter to the Pope from living descendents of the Templars appeared in the press in 2004. "We shall witness the 700th anniversary of the persecution of our order on 13th October 2007," the letter said. "It would be just and fitting for the Vatican to acknowledge our grievance in advance of this day of mourning."

On 25 October 2007, exactly 13 days from the morning of the anniversary, an official document will be released by the Vatican absolving the Knights Templar and confirming their innocence.

Until now official Church history had written the Knights off as corrupt heretics.

The documents that reprieve the Knights Templar, the stormtroopers of the Crusades - from accusations of heresy are the minutes of the trials that led to the disbanding of the order. They were discovered by chance in the Vatican archives in 2001. The records show that Pope Clement V did not believe they were heretics but that the order should be suppressed for the good of the Church.

Image:Templars Burning.jpg
Two Templars burned at the stake, from a French 15th century manuscript.So widely was the injustice of Philip's rage against the Templars perceived that the "Curse of the Templars" became legend: Reputedly uttered by the Grand Master Jacques de Molay upon the stake whence he burned, he adjured:
"Within one year, God will summon both Clement and Philip to His Judgment for these actions."

The fact that both rulers died within a year, as predicted, only heightened the scandal surrounding the suppression of the Order.

Mithraism was a religion with no dogma, no "original sin," no revelation, no history of  "miracles," totally tolerant, stressing benevolence, possessing ranks as (secret) initiation rites in consecrated Mithraism--and barring women.

A central story of Masonry concerns Soloman's Temple where the Knights of

Masonry is the preservation of an ancient system of esoteric knowledge with four principle ideas;  belief in one God, a teaching of Immortality, a symbolic idea of building, and a seeking after something which was lost.

Indeed these characteristics in Masonry are found not just in the Mysteries of Mithras but also among the Ancient Egyptians in the mysteries of Osiris, where it is said Moses was initiated into the solemn rites by the powerful priesthood which antedated the return of the chosen people of God; within the old Persian Mysteries of Mithras as administered by the Magi, the conception of rebirth and life after death is strong within Dionysian Mysteries of Greece which was practiced throughout the Mediterranean and probably carried by the workmen of Tyre into Jerusalem when Solomon's temple was built on Mount Moriah. We also find these four characteristics in the mysteries of Bacchus in early Rome; later in the Roman Collegia of Builders; and in the teachings of the peaceful Essenes along the Jordan, who played a dominant role in the ideas of John the Baptist and Jesus.

Ban on Roman Catholics joining Masonic Lodges
In 1983, the Church issued a new Code of Canon Law. Unlike its predecessor, it did not explicitly name Masonic orders among the secret societies it condemns. It states in part: "A person who joins an association which plots against the Church is to be punished with a just penalty; one who promotes or takes office in such an association is to be punished with an interdict." This omission caused both Catholics and Freemasons to believe that the ban on Catholics becoming Freemasons may have been lifted, especially after the perceived liberalisation of Vatican II.[53]

However, the matter was clarified when Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger (later Pope Benedict XVI), as the Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, issued Quaesitum est, which states:
 "...the Church’s negative judgment in regard to Masonic association remains unchanged since their principles have always been considered irreconcilable with the doctrine of the Church and therefore membership in them remains forbidden. The faithful who enroll in Masonic associations are in a state of grave sin and may not receive Holy Communion."
Thus, from a Catholic perspective, there is still a ban on Catholics joining Masonic Lodges.

 For its part, Freemasonry has never objected to Catholics joining their fraternity and while up until recently have not been interested in explaining their secrets have always been forthright in denying the Church's claims and stating that they explicitly adhere to the principle that "Freemasonry is not a religion, nor a substitute for religion."[46]

The Secret Teachings of ALL AGES
Secrets_ofAllAges.jpg"The explorers who opened the New World operated from a master plan and were agents of re-discovery rather then discoverers. Time will reveal that the continent now known as America was actually discovered and, to a considerable degree, explored more than a thousand years before the beginning of the Christian era. The true story was in the keeping of the Mystery Schools, and passed from them to the Secret Societies of the Medieval world. The Esoteric Orders of Europe, Asia, and the Near East were in at least irregular communication with the priesthoods of the more advanced Amerindian nations. Plans for the development of the Western Hemisphere were formulated in Alexandria, Mecca, Delhi, and Lhasa (in Tibet) long before most European statesmen were aware of the great Utopian program."
- Manly P. Hall
Time Cover

"A government is like fire, a handy servant, but a dangerous master. "

On September 18, 1783, President George Washington dressed in his Masonic apron, leveled the cornerstone of the United States Capitol with the traditional Masonic ceremony. Eight signers of the Declaration of Independence were Freemasons: Benjamin Franklin, Robert Treat Paine, John Hancock, Richard Stockton, Joseph Hewes, George Walton, William Hooper, and William Whipple.

As above, so is below

Washington DC

Image:Washington Monument Dusk Jan 2006.jpg

When  constructed, the Washingtom monument  was the tallest building in the world. It is still the tallest building in Washington, D.C. as a 1910 law restricts new building heights to no more than 20 feet (6 m) greater than the width of the adjacent street.

The layout of Washington D.C. was done in precise accords with Masonic symbolism and offers one of the better links of the group with the Egyptian wisdom embodied in the Great Pyramid.
 The White House is situated at the tip of a large compass created by Vermont Avenue and Connecticut Avenue as they lead north. Of course, the emblem of Freemasonry is a compass overlapping a square (the tool). Two right triangles meet exactly between Connecticut Avenue and Vermont Avenue at 16th Street. The Washington Monument (phallic symbol) is positioned precisely south from where the two right triangles meet, and the tip of the compass at the White House


The cross with the crosspiece at the top of the upright is known as the Cross of St. Anthony or as the Crux Commissa. This cross is also known as the Tau Cross, because it looks like the Greek letter tau which is the same as the T in our alphabet. In this form, the cross symbolizes the triumph of Man's spiritual nature over his physical nature.
Temple at the top
of the Narmer Plate
NB: Tau and H
(H = Double Tau)


Triple Tau: The
Temple of Jerusalem
NB: Tau and H
(H = Double Tau)

the Triple Tau, is  a Trinity symbol. Christians interpreted the symbol as “Holiness supporting Trinity”.  it is also said to mean Clavis ad Thesaurum - "A key to the treasure" - and Theca ubi res pretiosa - "A place where the precious thing is concealed." The Triple Tau is a significant symbol, or logo, of the Royal Arch Mason. It represents the Mason who has reached either the seventh degree of the York Rite or 13th degree of the Scottish Rite.
Image of an Egyptian Van de Graaff generator. Isis and Nephthys at the bottom sit on the sign for gold, nebu, which is a superior power conductor. The djed column means stability, acting as a stable base for the generator, the term possibly also meaning "insulator" in this context. The ankh means the power of life, or electrical power. The round symbol is the solar disk, or a source of light, as the case may be. The current understanding of the ankh and solar disk as merely symbolic of life is the result of a degeneration of ancient Egyptian thought, where superstition had taken the place of science.


The center axis of the Capitol dome aligns itself with the center axis of the Washington Monument, the dome of the Lincoln Memorial, and the White House. All axes of which are maintained with unobscured sight lines. The Capitol dome, the Washington Monument, and the Lincoln Memorial are all sited in a perfect East/West alignment and in conformity with the Golden section (PHI).

 Sacred geometry has its laws and Washington, D.C. is in conformity with them. With this conformity, it is possible to tell the time and date of the year from above or below. The Federal complex functions as both a clock and a calendar.

National Mall Stones & Mortar

The Origin of Baseball:
Abner Doubleday, Alexander Cartwright

 & 432 @ Elysian Fields

The first recorded baseball game in 1846 when Alexander Cartwright's Knickerbockers lost to the New York Baseball Club. The game was held at the Elysian Fields, in Hoboken, New Jersey.

The father of modern baseball Alexander Joy Cartwright put forth in 1945 20 rules which provided uniform standards. Cartwright is thought to be the first person to draw a diagram of a diamond shaped field.[4] In 1849, he a dozen friends set off for San Francisco to try to strike it rich as 49er gold miners. He continued West to Hawaii where he spent the rest of his long life as a Mason becoming master for two terms 1855 & 1856.

BAYSball World Series
Loma Prieta earthquakE

San Francisco Bay Area of California on October 17, 1989 at 5:04 p.m

Baseball configuration
The now infamous Loma Prieta earthquake, which registered 6.9 on the Richter sale, struck at 5:04pm, lasted 15 seconds killed 63 people throughout central California and 9 in San Francisco.

The Oakland Athletics and the San Francisco Giants were playing the 3rd game of the 1989 World Series at Candlestick Park after opening the series just across the Bay, just 11 miles away, at the Oakland Coliseum.

The earthquake had been predicted. Four days before the earthquake, an article appeared entitled "Is World Series Quake Coming?" in the Gilroy Dispatch. Also in the morning edition of The San Jose Mercury News by Kevin Cowherd in his syndicated column when he wrote:

"... these are two teams from California and God only knows if they'll even get all the games in. An earthquake could rip through the Bay Area before they sing the national anthem for Game 3

The Loma Prieta largest quake since 1906, and the most tremendous onshore seismic activity in California that did not break the Earth's surface.

Pythagoras taught that seven was composed of the numbers three and four, explaining that "on the plane of the noumenal world, the triangle was, as the first conception of the manifested Deity, its image: 'Father-Mother-Son'; and the Quaternary, the perfect number, was the noumenal, ideal root

It is doubtful that
Abner Doubleday devised "the first scheme for playing baseball, as reported originally in 1905 by the Mills commission who were assigned by Major League baseball to determine the origin of baseball. His distinguished military career included firing the first shot in defense of Fort Sumter, the opening battle of the civil war
. He is also credited with devising the first scheme for the San Francisco cable car, still in use today.

Baseball has many marks of Freemasonry. The field, from home plate to the left and right field wall forms a compass; the entire outfield wall is the semicircle which this compass draws. Upside-down, overlapping this compass, the bases form the square.  Three strikes and three outs were assigned because three is a principle sacred number throughout history as well as in Freemasonry. Four recalls the four directions common to so many sacred traditions as well the square formed by the  four bases of baseball as well as four balls. Nine is sacred not only because  it is three squared but because of the wonderful things it does. There are nine fielding positions and nine innings.

Of particular note for us is how well the precessional number 432 corresponds to baseball and ballparks. Gives new meaning to the idea that ballparks have replaced cathedrals in the 21st century in the realm of public architecture.
 Baseball & Freemasonry
Alexander_Cartwright & Abner_Doubleday

Masonry is a secular fraternity and does not require belief in any particular revelation, but is only open to those who believe in a power greater than themselves, like baseball perhaps?

Egyptian Priest -> Persian Magi -> Pythagoreans -> Mithras ->
Knights Templar
 -> Masonry

The organization was in some ways a school, in some ways a brotherhood, and in some ways a monastery. It was based upon Pythagoras’ religious teachings and was very secretive. At first, the school was highly concerned with the morality of society. Members were required to live ethically, love one another, share political beliefs, practice pacifism, and devote themselves to the mathematics of nature.

Pythagoras's followers were commonly called "Pythagoreans." For the most part we remember them as philosophical mathematicians who had an influence on the beginning of axiomatic geometry, which after two hundred years of development was written down by Euclid in The Elements.

The Pythagoreans observed a rule of silence called echemythia, the breaking of which was punishable by death. This was because the Pythagoreans believed that a man's words were usually careless and misrepresented him and that when someone was "in doubt as to what he should say, he should always remain silent". Another rule that they had was to help a man "in raising a burden, but do not assist him in laying it down, for it is a great sin to encourage indolence", and they said "departing from your house, turn not back, for the furies will be your attendants"; this axiom reminded them that it was better to learn none of the truth about mathematics, God, and the universe at all than to learn a little without learning all.

Eye of Mind or the Eye of Horus: the "all seeing eye" is not just a symbol of God's omniscience but also of the source of spiritual enlightenment. A genuine Egyptian obelisk stands in the centre of St. Peter's Square with a clear view to the East to catch the first rays of the rising Sun. This obelisk symbolises Christ as Light of the World.
Représentation de J. de Molay datant du 19 ème siècle
The great Seal of the United States of America & Sacred numbers
"It will take a more definite recognition of the Grand Architect of the Universe before the apex stone is finally fitted into place and this nation in the full strength of its power is in a position to assume leadership among the nations in inaugurating "the new order of the ages" [the motto of the Great Seal]. - Henry A. Wallace, 1934. 33rd Vice President of the United States & 32nd degree Freemason
In 1933, Adolf Hitler and President Franklin Roosevelt came to power. Both these men were committed to the establishment of the New World Order, and their actions impacted humanity greatly.

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The Masons use the Square and
Compasses as their most common symbol. The Square stands for Virtue and Morality. The Compasses stand for the importance of keeping our passions within bounds. But it is even richer.

The compass, which is used to draw circles, represents the realm of the spiritual- eternity. It is symbolic of the defining and limiting principle, and also of infinite boundaries.

The angle measures the square, the symbol of earth and the realm of the material. The square reprents fairness, balance, firmness, etc., which is reflected in phrases such as "on the square" and "squared away."

the Eastern Star uses the symbol to mean. They use it as a symbol of the star which guided the Wise Men to Bethlehem. The downward pointing ray represents the light of the star coming to the earth and also the birth of Jesus when He came down to earth from heaven.
Masons use the five-pointed star as a symbol, too. For Masons, the star is a symbol of Man, with the five points representing the head, the hands, and the feet as seen in this classic drawing.

Seven is a sacred number in masonry symbolism. It has always been a sacred number and can be traced back to the sacred planets are: the Moon, Mercury, Venus, Sun, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn of the ancient wisdom religions

When the pharaohs could no longer build huge pyramids they began to erect very tall obelisks. They plated the pyramidions of these obelisks with polished gold or electrum, which is an amalgam of gold and silver. Each dawn, before those on the ground were illuminated, the mirror surface of the obelisk pyramidion would give off a sun-flash - a symbolic "Eye of Horus".
Dan Brown's best-selling novel, "The Da Vinci Code," linked the Knights Templar to the story of the Holy Grail.
Benjamin Franklin, a key leader of the delegates, was both a Grand Master Mason (Lodge of Nine Sisters, Paris, France) and a Rosicrucian. Thomas Jefferson, who helped draft the Declaration of Independence, wrote favorably of the Order of the Illuminati and its founder, European Jesuit Professor Adam Weishaupt.