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Caesarion (little Caesar) (June 23, 47 BC – August, 30 BC) the last king of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt, who reigned, as a child, jointly with his mother Cleopatra VII of Egypt from September 2, 44 BC to August, 30 BC, when he was killed by Octavian, who would become the Roman emperor Augustus.

The eldest son of Cleopatra VII, Caesarion is considered (and it is highly likely, given the evidence) the son of Julius Caesar, for whom he was named. I

In a struggle with the other successors of Alexander, his general, Ptolemy (later Ptolemy I of Egypt) succeeded in bringing Alexander's body to Alexandria, where it became a famous tourist destination for ancient travelers (including Julius Caesar). The city passed formally under Roman jurisdiction in 80 BC, according to the will of Ptolemy Alexander but only after it had been under Roman influence for more than a hundred years.

In 616, it was taken by Khosrau II, King of Persia. Although the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius recovered it a few years later, in 641 the Arabs, under the general Amr ibn al-As during the Muslim conquest of Egypt, captured it decisively after a siege that lasted fourteen months. The city received no aid from Constantinople during that time; Heraclius was dead and the new Emperor Constantine III was barely twelve years old. Notwithstanding the losses that the city had sustained, Amr was able to write to the Caliph Omar, that he had taken a city containing "4,000 palaces, 4,000 baths, 12,000 dealers in fresh oil, 12,000 gardeners, 40,000 Jews who pay tribute, 400 theaters or places of amusement." In 645 a Byzantine fleet recaptured the city, but it fell for good the following year.

Some claim that The Library of Alexandria and its contents were destroyed in 642 during the Arab invasion.[4] Others deny this and claim that the library was destroyed much earlier, in 3rd century, due to civil war in the time of the Roman Emperor Aurelian.[5] The Lighthouse was destroyed by earthquakes in the 14th century,[6] and by 1700 the city was just a small town amidst the ruins.

Alexandria figured prominently in the military operations of Napoleon's expedition to Egypt in 1798. French troops stormed the city on July 2nd 1798 and it remained in their hands until the arrival of the British expedition in 1801. The British won a considerable victory over the French at the Battle of Alexandria on March 21st 1801, following which they besieged the city which fell to them on 2nd September 1801.

Mohammed Ali, the Ottoman Governor of Egypt, began rebuilding the city around 1810, and by 1850, Alexandria had returned to something akin to its former glory. In July 1882 the city came under bombardment from British naval forces and was occupied

LINKS LIST --The Alliance between Marcus Antoninus and Cleopatra VII by Andrew Mason
Cleopatra on the web @.isidore-of
The Project Gutenberg EBook of Pinnock's Improved Edition of Dr.
Goldsmith's History of Rome,
by Oliver Goldsmith
Maternal Instincts: The Role or lack thereof of Cleopatra's Children in Defining Her Character for authors & films
by Cheryl Thayer
Queen Cleopatra of Egypt - Image 1
69 Cleopatra born in Alexandria

51 Ptolemy Auletes dies leaving his kingdom in his will to his eighteen-year-old daughter, Cleopatra, and her younger brother Ptolemy XIII. Pompey left in charge of them.

48 Cleopatra is removed from power by Theodotas and Achillas.

48 Pompey defeated at Pharsalus in August.
Pompey murdered as he steps ashore on September 28.
Caesar restores Cleopatra to the Egyptian throne.

47 Caesarion (Ptolemy Caesar), Caesar and Cleopatra's son, born June 23.

46-44 Caesar, Cleopatra in Rome

44 Assassination of Caesar on March 15. Cleopatra flees to Alexandria.

43 Formation of the triumvirate:
Antony - Octavian (Augustus) - Lepidus

43-42 Victory of the triumvirate at Philippi

41 Antony meets Cleopatra at Tarsus and follows her to Egypt

40 Antony returns to Rome
The triumvirate partition the Mediterranean
- Octavian: The western provinces
(Spain, Sardinia, Sicily,
Transalpine Gaul, Narbonne)
- Antony : The eastern provinces
(Macedonia, Asia, Bithynia,
Cilicia, Syria)
- Lepidus : Africa (Tunisia and Algeria)

36 Elimination of Lepidus
Octavian controls Africa and becomes the
effective ruler of Rome
Parthian campaign of Marc Antony

35 Antony returns to Alexandria with Cleopatra

32 Antony divorces Octavian's sister Octavia
Western provinces pledge allegiance to Octavian
Declaration of war on Cleopatra

31 Battle of Actium (Sept. 2) and victory of Octavian Antony and Cleopatra seek refuge at Alexandria

30 Victory of Octavian at Alexandria
Suicide of Antony and then Cleopatra (August 12)
Egypt becomes a Roman province



The people were told that under the rule of Cleopatra Isis-Venus and Antony Dionysus-Osiris a new age would dawn

kairos, the Greek name for timing is everything or that there exists a "fertile hour most opportune for those who are able to perceive this intuitive moment.

According to his ex brother-in-law, AntonyThe image “” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors. was  a man entirely under the spell of a foreign temptress. After his failed Parthian [modern Iran and Iraq] expedition to extend the Eastern boundaries of the Roman empire, Antony did act  more and more to advance Cleopatra’s agenda rather than Rome's. The influence Cleopatra had over him greatly affected Antony’s fate; it cost him support in Rome, it cost him the allegiance of many of his finest commanders and it negatively influenced major tactical decisions.


Sarah Bernhardt as Cleopatra, 1891

Cleopatra VII was born in 69 BC, daughter of Ptolemy XII (nicknamed Auletes, the flute-player) and, probably, of his sister, Cleopatra V. She was Ptolemy's third child and was not expected to become queen. Her childhood was extraordinarily insecure. Her father was more than once ousted from his kingdom usually because he was not viewed as strong enough to stand up to Rome. He essentially mortgaed his kingdom by borrowing staggering sums to pay bribes to prominent Romans (including Crassus and Caesar) for military and political support. He wasQueen Cleopatra of Egypt - Image 5 suspected of paying for dozens of prominent Alexandrines traveling to Rome to be murdered, before they could protest his return to rule. When Caesar, as consul, raised questions about his legitimacy, Ptolemy is said to have bribed him with 6,000 silver talents in return for official recognition. He later paid Aulus Gabinius, governor of Syria, 10,000 silver talents (borrowed from a Roman banker). Gabinius invaded Egypt on Ptolemy's behalf in 55 BC and forcibly restored the king to his tottering throne.

Ptolemy Auletes, had his eldest daughter, Berenice IV and possibly a second daughter, Cleopatra VI,  murdered for seizing his throne in his absense. Her father's death in the springtime of 51 left Cleopatra the surviving eldest child and, at age 17, she ascended the throne ruling jointly with her younger brother, Ptolemy XIII, aged 13.

In 48 BC, Cleopatra had alarmed the more powerful court officials of Alexandria by some of her actions. For instance, her mercenaries killed the Roman governor of Syria's sons when they came to ask for her assistance for their father against the Parthians. A group of men led by Theodotus, the eunuch Pothinus and a half-Greek general, Achillas, overthrew her in favor of her younger brother. They believed him to be much easier to influence and they became his council of regency.

Civil War broke out between Pompey the Great and the senatorial forces in Rome and the armies of Julius Caesar. Pompey moved to the east and promptly sent his eldest son, Gnaeus, to demand ships, troops, and supplies of Egypt. Gabinius' forces were still largely in Egypt, and he had served under Pompey. Cleopatra cooperatively released 50 ships and grain supplies for Pompey's support. To those Alexandrians already unhappy that she had assumed sole rule, this pro-Roman treatment provoked a backlash. Sometime in 48, Cleopatra was ousted by ministers supporting her younger brother. She fell back upon Arabia and Palestine and set about raising an army to retrieve her throne. By the time she had done so, and her army began moving westward to face her brother's forces Image:NileMosaicOfPalestrinaSoldiers.jpgat the eastern end of the Delta, Caesar had comprehensively destroyed Pompey's forces at the Battle of Pharsalus on August 9, 48 BC. Cleopatra had supplied the losing side.

Pompey headed for Alexandria hoping to find refuge with Ptolemy XIII, of whom Pompey was a senate-appointed guardian. Pompey did not realize how much his reputation had been destroyed by Pharsalus until it was too late. He was murdered as he stepped ashore on September 28, 48 BC. While Cleopatra was in exile, Pompey became embroiled in the Roman civil war. In the autumn of 48 BC, Pompey fled from the forces of Julius Caesar to Alexandria, seeking sanctuary. Ptolemy, only fifteen years old at that time, had set up a throne for himself on the harbour from where he watched as on September 28, 48 BC Pompey was murdered by one of his former officers, now in Ptolemaic service. He was beheaded in front of his wife and children, who were on the ship he had just disembarked from. Ptolemy is thought to have ordered the death as a way of pleasing Julius Caesar and thus become an ally of Rome, to which Egypt was in debt.

This was a catastrophic miscalculation on Ptolemy's part. When Caesar arrived in Egypt two days later, Ptolemy presented him with Pompey's severed head. Caesar was enraged. This was probably due to the fact that, although he was Caesar's political enemy, Pompey was a Consul of Rome and the widower of Caesar's only legitimate daughter, Julia (who died in childbirth with their son). Caesar seized the Egyptian capital and imposed himself as arbiter between the rival claims of Ptolemy and Cleopatra.

 Four days later, Caesar arrived in Alexandria. He brought with him thirty-two hundred legionaries and eight hundred cavalry. He also brought twelve other soldiers who bore the insignia of the Roman government who carried a bundle of rods with an ax with a blade that projected out. This was considered a badge of authority that gave a clear hint of his intentions. There were riots that followed in Alexandria. Ptolemy XIII was gone to Pelusium and Caesar placed himself in the royal palace and started giving out orders. The eunuch, Pothinus, brought Ptolemy back to Alexandria. Cleopatra had no intentions of being left out of any deals that were going to be made.

Cleopatra first met with Julius Caesar in early October, 49 BC. Caesar was 52; Cleopatra 21. Alexandria was in the hands of her brother's ministers and she could not pass the gauntlet of guards in her own former palace. As Plutarch notes,

"Taking just one of her courtiers, Apollodorus the Sicilian, she boarded a small boat and landed near the palace at dusk. Unable to think of any other way to enter unnoticed, she lay down full length in a bed-linen sack, and Apollodorus tied the sack up with a strap and carried it through the gates to Caesar. Caesar, it is said, was immediately taken with this trick of Cleopatra, and the coquettish impression it made..."

 The Alexandrian War was started when Pothinus called for Ptolemy XIII's soldiers in November and surrounded Caesar in Alexandria with twenty thousand men. During the war, parts of the Alexandrian Library and some of the warehouses were burned. However, Caesar did manage to capture the Pharos lighthouse, which kept his control of the harbor. Cleopatra's sister, Arsinoe, escaped from the palace and ran to Achillas. She was proclaimed the queen by the Macedonian mob and the army. Cleopatra never forgave her sister for this. During the fighting, Caesar executed the eunuch Pothinus and Achillas was murdered by Ganymede. Ptolemy XIII drowned in the Nile while he was trying to flee.

Plutarch refers to her, repeatedly, as beautiful, but also notes

"Her own beauty, so we are told, was not of that incomparable kind which instantly captivates the beholder. But the charm of her presence was irresistible, and there was an attraction in her person and in her talk, together with a peculiar force of character which pervaded her every word and action, and laid all who associated with her under her spell." Plutarch, Life of Antony, 27.

Rome historically preferred appointing puppet rulers with some claim to the ruled lands. No doubt the young woman Cleopatra, who had supported Pompey against Caesar, was making her case. Nine months after their firstQueen Cleopatra of Egypt - Image 3 meeting, Cleopatra gave birth to their baby. It was at this point that Caesar abandoned his plans to annex Egypt, instead backing Cleopatra's claim to the throne. After a short civil war, Ptolemy XIII was drowned in the Nile and Caesar restored Cleopatra to her throne, with another younger brother Ptolemy XIV as new co-ruler.

Despite the almost thirty year age difference, Cleopatra and Caesar became lovers during his stay in Egypt between 48 BC and 47 BC. They met when they were 21 (Cleopatra) and 50 (Caesar). On 23 June 47 BC Cleopatra gave birth to a child, Ptolemy Caesar (nicknamed "Caesarion" which means "little Caesar"). Cleopatra claimed Caesar was the father and wished him to name the boy his heir, but Caesar refused, choosing his grand-nephew Octavian instead. Caesarion was the intended inheritor of Egypt and Rome, uniting the East and the West. Caesar acknowledged the boy as one of only two known children born to him although writers through history have often speculated that this might not have been the case, the much talked about Queen was known for no other lovers in her history other than Caesar and his general Marcus Anthony.

Constance Collier as Cleopatra, 1906

In the summer of 47 BC, having married her younger brother Ptolemy XIV, Cleopatra and Caesar embarked for a two month on a trip along the Nile, aboard a legendary boat. Together, they visited Dendara, where Cleoptara was being worshipped as Pharaoh, an honor beyond Caesar's reach. Caesar only left the boat to attend important business in Syria just a few weeks before the birth of their son, Caesarion (Ptolemy Caesar) who was born on June 23, 47 BC.

From the age of three, the boy would reign with his mother as Ptolemy XV, known as "Caesarion." In 45 BC, Cleopatra and Caesarion left Alexandria for Rome, where they stayed in a palace built by Caesar in their honor  in Trastavere, across the Tiber from Rome. Caesar continued to live with his wife, Calpurnia, but visited the Queen. Cleopatra had started calling herself the New Isis

Jean-Leon Gerome, Cleopatra & Caesar, 1866

Roman sensibilities were further shocked when Caesar unveiled his magnificent new Temple of Venus Genetrix - legendary ancestress of his own family - in which he placed a life-size golden statue of Cleopatra. Many were upset that he was planning to marry Cleopatra regardless of the laws against bigamy and marriages to foreigners.

However, on the Ides of March of 44 BC, all of that came to an end. Caesar was assassinated outside the Senate Building in Rome. He was killed in a conspiracy by his Senators

Immediately after Caesar's murder on March 15, Cleopatra and her household left for Alexandria. Upon her return to Egypt, he last surviving brother, Ptolemy XIV, conveniently died. Cleopatra then declared Caesar's three-year-old son as Ptolemy XV, co-ruler of Egypt. To be Caesar's son, in a Rome containing Octavian, Caesar's legal heir, was far too dangerous.


Cleopatra & Egypt on Youtube

69 - 30 BC
 Cleopatra was born in 69 BC in Alexandria, Egypt. She reigned as Queen Philopator and Pharaoh between 51 and 30 BC, and died at the age of 39.

According to Egyptian law, Cleopatra was forced to have a consort, who was either a brother or a son, no matter what age, throughout her reign. Cleopatra was married to her younger brother Ptolemy XIII when he was twelve, however she soon dropped his name from any official documents regardless of the Ptolemaic insistence that the male presence be first among co-rulers.

Her unions with her brothers produced no children. It is possible that they were never consummated; in any case, they were not close. Her reign marks the end of the Hellenistic Era and the beginning of the Roman Era in the eastern Mediterranean. She was the last Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt (her son by Julius Caesar, Caesarion, ruled in name only before Augustus had him executed)

The royal family, on the other hand, did have more incestuous marriages. The royal blood ran through the females, not the males. To become pharaoh, a man had to marry a royal princess... which would be his sister or half-sister.
"Her character, which pervaded her actions in an inexplicable way when meeting people, was utterly spellbinding. The sound of her voice was sweet when she talked".


Cleopatra was a quick-witted woman who was fluent in nine languages, however, Latin was not one of them. A Greek by descent, language and culture, Cleopatra is reputed to have been the first member of her family in their 300-year reign in Egypt to have learned the Egyptian language. Though she bore the ancient Egyptian title Pharaoh, her primary language was Greek

She was a mathematician and a very good businesswoman. She had a genuine respect for Caesar, whose intelligence and wit matched her own.

Caesar went as far as putting up a golden statue of Cleopatra in the Temple of Venus in Rome, making her the first living human to share a temple with a Roman God - a frank recognition of her divinity and beauty by Caesar himself.

One of the best known stories told about Cleopatra is that, at one of the lavish dinners she shared with Antony, she playfully bet him that she could spend ten million sesterces on a dinner. He accepted the bet. The next night, she had a conventional, unspectacular meal served; he was ridiculing this, when she ordered the second course — only a cup of strong vinegar. She then removed one of her priceless pearl earrings, dropped it into the vinegar, allowed it to dissolve, and drank the mixture.

Plutarch, writing about 130 years after the event, is the main source of the story that has come down to us with all its detail of Cleopatra being found dead, her handmaiden Iras dying at her feet, and another handmaiden, Charmion, adjusting her crown before she herself falls.[9] He then goes on to tell us that some say an asp was concealed in a basket of figs that was brought to her by a rustic, and finding it after eating a few figs, she holds out her arm for it to bite. Others say that it was hidden in a vase, and that she poked it with a spindle until it got angry enough to bite her on the arm. Finally, he eventually writes, in Octavian's triumphal march back in Rome, an effigy of Cleopatra that has an asp clinging to it is part of the parade

Cleopatra's son by Caesar, Caesarion, was proclaimed pharaoh by the Egyptians, but Octavian had already won. Caesarion was captured and executed, his fate reportedly sealed by Octavian's famous phrase: "Two Caesars are one too many." This ended not just the Hellenistic line of Egyptian pharaohs, but the line of all Egyptian pharaohs. The three children of Cleopatra and Antony were spared and taken back to Rome where they were taken care of by Antony's wife, Octavia Minor, who was also Octavian's sister.


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