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The 2014 FIFA World Cup will be the 20th FIFA World Cup, and will be held in Brazil.[1] It was scheduled to take place in South America and Brazil was selected to host the competition on 30 October 2007
 
Rio to Sao-Paulo_High-speed_rail The high-speed line is expected to be operational by 2014, in time for the 20th FIFA World Cup to be held in Brazil.[3], at a cost of $9 billion
 

Rio de Janeiro created a new perspective and set new milestones for the Pan American Games. Considered to be an Olympic-level organized competition, these 2007 Games were the most expensive in the history of the event, with a budget of 2 billion dollars. Media outlets reported unprecedented audience interest in the Games, with the highest public attendance and largest television audience in the Pan American history.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Brazil's  president 2004-2010, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva. a founding member of the Workers' Party (Partido dos Trabalhadores). Lula was first elected with 61% of the votes and took office on January 1, 2003. The eight years of the Lula government profoundly changed Brazilian foreign policy as well as its own self-image
Amazon  The Amazon represents over half of the planet's remaining rainforests. Deforestation has declined significantly in the Brazilian Amazon since 2004 but demand to convert it to more profitable uses remains high.
Abstinence, be faithful, use a condom, also known as the ABC strategy or abstinence-plus sex education, also known as abstinence-based sex education, is a sex education policy based on harm reduction which modifies the approach of abstinence-only sex education by including education about safe sex and birth control methods. The ABC approach was developed in response to the growing epidemic of HIV/AIDS in Africa, and to prevent the spread of other sexually transmitted diseases.

Abortion in Brazil

The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) (Congregatio pro Doctrina Fidei), previously known as the Supreme Sacred Inquisition is headed by the former archbishop of San Francisco William Joseph Levada who succeeded Pope Benedict XVI  whose legacy includes removing the more liberal elements of the Catholic church from positions of power or influence
Recognition of same-sex unions in Brazil
Brazilian same-sex couples have achieved a considerable degree of legal protection in the last twenty years, a consequence of several judicial decisions extending to same-sex couples the same status and rights afforded opposite-sex couples.
Portal:Current
events/Brazil
 Brazilian television networks  & 24-hour television news channels
Used from 2005 to the present
 Globo Internacional 4th largest media network in the world and the main media outlet for Brazil Carnaval
Brazil was a colony of Portugal from its discovery by Pedro Álvares Cabral in 1500 until its independence in 1822.
 Constitution defines Brazil as a Federative Republic.[2] The Federation is formed by the indissoluble association of the States, the Federal District, and the Municipalities.[2] There are currently 26 States and 5,564 Municipalities.[5]

Brazil is the world's 8th largest economy in terms of purchasing power and the 10th largest economy at market exchange rates

Link List

Galeão (Int'l)
Santos-Dumont
Embassy of Brazil in London
Brazil's Largest Cities by citymayors.com
22 towns and cities with more than half a million people. Some of them have many more. Some 15.2 million people live in the urban area around and including the city of São Paulo. For Rio de Janeiro, the figure is 9.6 million. Salvador, Bahia is 3rd largest.
(Portuguese) Rio Carnival News - O Globo

(Portuguese) Rio Carnival News - Jornal do Brasil

(Portuguese) Rio Carnival News - O Dia

(Portuguese) Rio Carnival News - UOL

 

NEWS from the
 Capital of Carnaval: BRAZIL
 
On January 1st 2011
Dilma Rousseff was sworn in as Brazil's new president
"The best homage that I can give to him is to continue the progress made by his government, and invest in the strength of the people," she added. "This has been the best lesson that President Lula has given all of us."

The newly inaugurated President Rousseff singled out President Lula's work over the last eight years to reduce poverty and promote economic prosperity.
Dilma Rousseff, won her first election ever to become the first women President of Brazil on January 1, 2011

"The most determined struggle will be to eradicate extreme poverty," she said. "We can be a more developed and fairer country. I will not rest while there are Brazilians without food on their table, homeless in the streets, and poor children abandoned to their luck."

She also outlined her plans for tax reforms, environmental protection, improved health services, regional development, and measures to protect the economy from foreign "speculation".

The rain at the inaugural parade in Brasilia prevented the roof of Ms Rousseff's Rolls Royce from being opened
Ms Rousseff later travelled to the presidential palace, where Lula removed the green-and-gold sash of the Brazilian head of state and placed it over her head as thousands of onlookers cheered.

"The happiness I feel for my inauguration is mixed with emotion at seeing him leave," the new president said, wiping tears from her eyes. "But Lula will be with us. I know that the distance of this position won't mean anything to a man of such greatness and generosity."

Lula himself shed a tear while hugging several ministers and aides, before leaving by car to his home near Sao Paulo.

Ms Rousseff, a former Marxist rebel who was imprisoned for three years in the early 1970s for resisting military rule, has promised to protect freedom of expression and worship, and to honor the constitution. As chief of staff and leading economist in the Lula government she has shown a concern with keeping inflation low and been credited as the architect of the government’s plan to “induce” economic activity when Lula reorganized his government in 2005

Born to a Bulgarian immigrant father and a teacher in Belo Horizonte, the capital of Minas Gerais her upbringing was middle class. Her success as state energy secretary in Rio Grande do Sul at a time of electricity shortages brought her to Lula’s attention. She describes herself now as a “Brazilian democratic socialist”. She wants to reform the state to make it more effective but not smaller.

The continuation of a center-left government in Brazil may have even greater foreign implications where Lula's constructive presence has been both a force for change and moderation at the same time.  Lula's cautious and pragmatic foreign policy was not progressive or reformist and while not challenging the center of world power, or the United States it created a more favorable and balanced context for more positive transformations in South America.

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New Years - Copacabana Beach -Rio2016

rio2016.com.br/ official site

rio2016.com.br

 One million New Year partiers in Rio de  Janeiro, Brazil at the Copacabana Beach were given an extra treat just before they rung in the New Year at midnight of 1/1/11 – the unveiling of the 2016 Olympic game logo.
A national and international panel organizing the 2016 games made the final decision. Nearly 140 organizations had vied for the honor and only eight made it to the final judging phase.
The symbol is both a tricolor and reference to the trinity as a unifying force showing the circular embrace of three fluid flowing spirits colored in orange, green and blue. The logo is said to reflect the city’s culture , the country’s natural wonders and the joyful disposition of all Brazilians.
Some pundits said it referenced a similar 4 figure graphic of an obscure non-profit in Colorado USA but thisThe three graces at the MET is an altogether different energy force than the unifying three or trinity. A ring of three joined archetypes is best  known worldwide by countless artistic interpretation through the ages of the three graces.


Brazil will be only the third country in history to host both events within two years of each other - following in the footsteps of West Germany in the early 70s and the USA in the mid-90s.

High speed rail between Sao Paulo & Rio is to be completed for 2016 Olympics but the winning consortium has not yet signed on to this date

In terms of economic growth Brazil's is among the most rapidly progressing in the world with a 2010 GDP expected to be up 7.5 per cent.

To a degree, social development has followed but as yet Brazil does not have the required infrastructure to host the two largest sporting competitions in the world - and FIFA have been swift to remind them of their venue deadlines.

Much media attention has been focused on the government's campaign to normalize infrastructure and governance in the falvelas or slums of Rio.

 
The other great capital of Carnaval is Bahia in Brazil's Northeast Region The musical styles are different in each carnival; in Bahia there are many rhythms, including samba, samba-reggae, axé, and others, which are performed on a truck equipped with giant speakers and a platform where musicians play called a Trio Elétrico. In Salvador, the early capital of the country as well as the most visited City after Rio massive numbers of people follow the trucks singing and dancing.

 

BBC on Brazil

BBC Best Link: Music - Brasil, Brasil BBC Four's exploration offers a detailed account of the years in which Brazilian music has evolved and constantly changed, while capturing the global imagination. This is the music and modern history of Brazil includes an archive of rare performances and specially shot interviews with  musical legends. From current hot success Seu Jorge to touring legend Caetano Veloso
This is a BBC documentary can now be viewed on youtube

2011 Carnival Summit in Serbia
The origins of carnival date back to the ancient Greek spring festival in honor of Dionysus, the god of wine and  ecstasy. The Romans later adopted the celebration to a Bacchanalia, with a greater emphasis on drunken revelry in honor of Bacchus, and mid-winter Saturnalia, where slaves and their masters would exchange clothes in a day of drunken revelry.


World Carnaval Capital of 2011 is Vrnjacka Banja, SERBIA
hosting the
31st FECC Carnival City Congress -

More info @ CarnivalCities.com


Carnaval & Church

Brazil has more Catholics than any other county

2010 Update:  New Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff has raised expectations that she will revisit strict abortion laws in Brazil that her mentor Lula carefully avoided. A March 2007 Datafolha/Folha de S. Paulo poll found that 65% of Brazilians believe that their country's current law "should not be modified." While Dilma the candidate often declared her opposition to abortion and said she is not trying to promote a plebiscite on the subject she also pointed out to religious leaders. “It is a question that only divides the country. And in the end everybody loses,” she stressed.

Perhaps in response, Pope Benedict XVI has been rallying the Brazilian bishops expressing to a meeting in October-2010 with bishops from Northeaster Brazil; ' While some may claim they support abortion or euthanasia to defend the weak and the poor, “who is more helpless than an unborn child or a patient in a vegetative or terminal state?” he said.

A rare maybe for CONDOMs
The Vatican has clarified controversial statements by Pope Benedict XVI on condom use to prevent AIDS in an effort to end speculation that he has relaxed the church ban on artificial birth control. But the Catholic Church also spoke out to head off a dispute among conservatives over what the pontiff really meant.

A 2010 book "Light of the World." compiled from a series of interviews conducted last July 2010 by a German journalist sympathetic to Benedict, the pope said that in some cases involving a likely transmission of AIDS, such as by a male prostitute, using a condom "can be a first step in the direction of a moralization, a first assumption of responsibility."

The comments were taken to mean that the pope was agreeing with the longstanding argument by Catholic ethicists and health care practitioners that condoms in some cases could be justified, perhaps as a "lesser evil," in cases where not using one would lead to the death of another person.

Brazil’s abortion laws are among the strictest in Latin America. Only Chile, El Salvador and Nicaragua, which have banned abortion outright for any reason, are stricter.

In a Dec-2010 statement the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, the office of orthodoxy once headed by Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger before his election as Benedict XVI, the Vatican explicitly said that the pope did not mean to invoke the "lesser evil" argument because that concept could lead to "misinterpretation."  Still the small step away from extreme absolute prohibition can do wonders in the field for Catholic health care workers around the world as the Catholic Church is the largest private provider of care to AIDS patients.


The Pope in March 2009 had reignited the controversy over the Catholic church's stance on condom use as he Vatican-Spiral.jpgmade his first trip to Africa.
Pope Benedict XVI has criticised some harm reduction policies with regards to HIV/AIDS, saying that "if the soul is lacking, if Africans do not help one another, the scourge [of HIV] cannot be resolved by distributing condoms; quite the contrary, we risk worsening the problem"

It was not the only incident during the Pope's journey through Africa that received a lot of criticism. Earlier that week, on the plane to Cameroon, the Pope judged sexual abuse of women, but at the same time stated that abortion in the case of incest or rape, which is legal in 45 African countries, should not be an option.

The level of criticism which followed from foreign ministers to international figures was particularly scathing.


Abortion in Brazil
A recent development was a decree by the Health Ministry, stating that a police report of rape is enough to allow the public health system to perform abortion. This measure has faced strong opposition from religious groups, particularly the Roman Catholic Church.

Otherwise, in Brazil the punishment for a woman which performs an abortion on herself or consents to an abortion is one to three years.

Brazil is the country with the largest number of Roman Catholics at 73% of the populace, or about 140 million
data360.org

Only about 36% of Brazilians attend church regularly
nationmaster.com
The Dalai Lama has said that abortion is "negative," but there are exceptions. He said, "I think abortion should be approved or disapproved according to each circumstance

1 in 5 Brazilian women of child-bearing age has terminated a pregnancy, and statistics by the Health Ministry show that 200,000 women each year suffer medical complications
JUN-2010-time.com

1 in 7 Brazilian women between the ages of 15 and 19 is a mother, and the average age at which women have their first child has fallen to 21, from 22.4 in 1996

Brazilian devotion to the Catholic Church has declined over the past several years. Whereas Brazil was once an almost entirely Catholic nation, only 73% of Brazilians today admit allegiance to Rome, with large numbers, especially the urban poor, having defected to Protestant Evangelical sects. Many more water down their Catholicism with dashes of African religions such as Candomble or spiritist beliefs such as Kardecism

Although abortion is illegal, an estimated 1 million women each year have one resulting in more than 200,000 women each year being treated in public hospitals for complications arising from illegal abortions, according to Health Ministry figures. Those who don't have the courage or the money to be treated take the pregnancy to term. Although the fertility rate has fallen considerably in Brazil (from 6.1 children in 1960 to about 2 today), 1 in 3 pregnancies is unwanted, according to Dr. Jefferson Drezett, head of the Hospital Perola Byington, Latin America's largest women's health clinic. Meanwhile, 1 in 7 Brazilian women between the ages of 15 and 19 is a mother, and the average age at which women have their first child has fallen to 21, from 22.4 in 1996, according to a government-funded study.

 "Brazil wants to be a world leader, but the government can't guarantee equality for women," says Beatriz Galli, of Ipas Brasil, an NGO that fights to give women more say over their health and reproductive rights."This is not a topic that anyone wants to debate."


TRADE & FINANCE
Brazil has become the center of finance in Latin America.

Brazil - USA:

Most important oil discovery in decades

The Brazilian government in late 2009 announced plans for the national oil company, Petrobras, to control all future development of the deep-sea fields discovered in 2007.

The oil lies beneath about 20,000 feet of water, shifting sand, and a thick layer of salt. This so-called pre-salt region, stretching hundreds of miles, is the biggest oil reserve being developed in the world today. Full-scale production is not till 2020 and foreign companies are very much involved in projects, including the giant field, called Tupi,which with  between five billion and eight billion barrels, is the biggest single Western Hemisphere find in at least three decades. However, the President is leading a strong sentiment that the oil belongs to Brazil and the lion's share revenues should be reinvested in education and health care.

There is no shortage of pride and enthusiasm in Brazil over the potential of the pre-salt reservoir, and apparently no intention of slowing down deepwater exploration - as other countries like the United States and Norway have done - because of the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.

National oil company Petrobras - which producers more than 95% of Brazil's oil - plans to increase its production from the current 2.3m barrels day to 4.1m in 2015.

Petrobras is the largest producer of oil in deepwater provinces in the world and is highly respected in the industry. But drilling in the pre-salt fields will pose challenges greater than Petrobras - or indeed any other oil company - has ever faced before.

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Amazon Forest Management
The Amazon represents 58.5% of the Brazilian territory. The Amazon rainforest holds the largest reserve of living organisms in the world. The precise number of species in it is not known, but scientists estimate a figure between 800 thousand and 5 million species – 15 to 30% of all known species in the world. Accounting for roughly half of tropical deforestation between 2000 and 2005, Brazil is the most important supply-side player when it comes to developing a climate framework that includes reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD).

In 2009 Brazil passed a law committing the country to reducing greenhouse gas emissions 36-39 percent from a projected 2020 baseline. The bulk of the emissions reductions would come from cutting the the country's deforestation rate, which until very recently, were the world's highest. Indonesia now loses more rainforest on an annual basis than Brazil.

In October 2010 President Lula announced that Brazil's 80 percent deforestation reduction target for the Amazon would be met by 2016, four years ahead of schedule.

Cancun 2010, rules of the road for REDD:
Despite low expectations, the Cancun climate summit represented a major step forward for forests. Most importantly, the nations of the world came to consensus on the rules of the road [PDF] for forest protection: In particular, they endorsed the idea that forests should be part of national plans to solve climate change.

This move is exactly what many countries have been looking for. Europe, in particular, has refused to credit tropical forest protection in its trading system -- saying it was waiting for the United Nations process to give its imprimatur. Now that that endorsement is there, it's time for Europe to stop waiting and recognize the huge opportunity they have sitting in their laps: The great climate debate in Europe right now is about whether to reduce pollution 20 or 30 percent by 2020. Because protecting forests is so cost-effective, including them will allow Europe to achieve the more ambitious target at the same cost as the 20 percent target, guaranteeing economic affordability and political viability.

There were a few important details in the REDD+ agreement: in particular, the United States showed admirable flexibility and said forest protection should adhere to the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous People. That represents a huge breakthrough: The Bush administration had not only refused to sign the declaration, but had refused to sign any international agreement that even alluded to it. The Obama administration had stuck to that position -- until the Cancun REDD+ negotiations, when they signaled a new flexibility, and then announced that they would actually sign the broader declaration. For forests, it's an important recognition. Generally speaking, indigenous peoples' forests are the best protected in the world -- and it's critical for the forests and just to ensure that indigenous people are included in and benefit from forest protection efforts on their lands.

 
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2007 Pan American to 2014 World Cup

The 12 Stadiums under spotlight

Brazil's preparations to host the 2014 football World Cup are coming along so slowly that the doubters are having their day. There have been many delays effecting practically all the work that was to have been carried out starting on the 12 venues across Brazil for the World Cup.
2014 FIFA World Cup bid logo
Where they will play
A. Belo Horizonte, Mineirao (upgraded to 70,000 capacity)
B. Brasilia, Estadio Nacional (upgraded to 71,500)
C. Cuiaba, Verdao (new stadium, 42,500)
D. Curitiba, Arena de Baixada (upgraded to 41,375)
E. Fortaleza, Castelao (upgraded to 66,700)
F. Manaus, Arena Manaus (new stadium, 50,000)
G. Natal, Arena de Dunas (new stadium, 42,500)
H. Porto Alegre, Estadio Beira-Rio (upgraded, 62,000)
I. Recife, Cidade de Copa (new stadium, 46,160)
J. Rio de Janeiro, Mara-cana (upgraded, 90,000)
K. Salvador, Fonte Nova (new stadium, 55,000)
L. Sao Paulo, Morumbi (upgraded, 62,000)

  The December 2012 deadline for completion is looking iffy. The stadiums need to be completed by then so that Brazil can stage the 2013 Confederations Cup. This far ahead of time, however, neither the Brazilian Football Confederation nor FIFA seem overly concerned, publicly expressing confidence that all will be right on the day. "Up to now, I'm very happy with progress. I have no doubt that the Cup in Brazil will be grand," FIFA president Sepp Blatter said. "We still have 3½ years to go, and I am sure that all the solutions will be found." Much of the international focus is on Rio's legendary Maracana stadium, which is being renovated to the tune of US$400-million.

Taking back the falvelas:
rio2016.com.br/ official siteThe police began 2010 by announcing plans to invade 40 of the most violent slums  before the 2014 soccer World Cup being held in Brazil, with the goal of establishing a permanent policing presence in communities now controlled by well-armed drug gangs. This will probably not include Rocinha, the largest and most fortified of  slums which has it's own prominent samba school and police keep a careful eye on from key points but generally seed control to well entrenched interests and a growing tourist economy.  Rocinha is high on a hill that overlooks critical areas like the South Zone, São Conrado and Barra da Tijuca.

Rio officials are adding 3,300 police officers this year, and at least 4,000 more in 2011 to Rio’s force of 45,000. Nearly all of the new officers will be employed as peacekeepers in the slums, Mr. Silviana said.Rio

Once control of a falvela by a drug gang is broken a shadow paramilitary governments takes over. ."The current mayor of Rio, Eduardo Paes, campaigned on a platform which defended the power of the paramilitaries."

More worrying still is that lessons appear not to have been learned. Almost two years after Brazil was awarded the right to host the 2014 soccer World Cup, work has yet to start on its 12 stadiums. A proposed bullet train linking São Paulo and Rio is supposed to be operational in time for the tournament, but the official tender has not been issued yet, and even politicians are now admitting it could be late.


Brazil, which has won a record five 2014 FIFA World Cup bid logoWorld Cups, was awarded the right to host 2014 World Cup tournament following the 2007 XV Pan American Games in Rio de Janeiro. As many as 12 Brazil Cities may participate while Macarena stadium in Rio will host the final.  The South American country hosted the competition once before, losing to Uruguay in the mythical 1950 final.

Hosting the 2014 World Cup is a key element in successfully hosting the Rio de Janeiro 2016 Olympics.

 
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Fast Facts

 

Rio is getting the Summer Olympics 2016. These will be the first Olympics to be held in South America and only the 3rd Olympics to be held in the Southern Hemisphere.
Brazil is the largest country in South America; shares common boundaries with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador
Rio de Janeiro became the capital of Brazil after the discovery of gold inland in 1763. In 1960 it lost its capital city status to Brasilia.
Brazil visitors looking for value like  leather goods, shoes, gems, music, traditional handcrafts, lace, embroidery, and artifacts from Brazil’s indigenous tribes. 
 
The Atlantic Ocean stretches along Brazil’s Eastern side, up to a total of 7,367 km (approx. 4,604 mi) of coastline.
Its population is concentrated along the Atlantic coastline of the Northeastern and Southeastern regions. 50% of the industrial output is located in the Southeastern state of São Paulo. Most of Brazil's population (81.2%) now lives in cities
Brazil has the biggest black population of any country outside Nigeria.
Over 10 million African slaves were shipped to Brazil, six times more than to the United States.
About 54 percent (95 million) are mainly of European origin, descendants of immigrants from Portugal, Italy, Spain, Germany and Eastern Europe. More than 45 percent (80 million) are black or of mixed-race, a legacy of the African slave trade. Less than 1 percent (700,000) are from indigenous groups, mostly Indians in the Amazon region; smaller numbers of Japanese, other Asians, and Arabs live in the larger Brazilian cities.
The rhythm Brazil is best known for, is samba.
Nowadays, most Brazilians from the south are descendants of the European immigrants who settled in the late 19th century.
Mail from Brazil is quick and efficient. Post offices (correios) are found everywhere, readily identifiable by the blue-and-yellow sign
When writing addresses in Brazil, the street number follows the name of the street (so the address "Av. Atlântica 2000" would roughly translate as "2000 Atlantic Ave."). Often in smaller towns or beachfront communities, a street name will be followed by the abbreviation "s/n." This stands for sem numero (without number)
Tipping -- A 10% service charge is automatically included on most restaurant and hotel bills and you are not expected to tip on top of this amount. If service has been particularly bad you can request to have the 10% removed from your bill. Taxi drivers do not get tipped; just round up the amount to facilitate change. Hairdressers and beauticians usually receive a 10% tip. Bellboys get tipped R$1 to R$2 (US50¢-US$1/£.25-£.50) per bag. Room service usually includes the 10% service charge on the bill.
São Paulo is the third biggest city in the world, after Tokyo and Mexico City.
In Brazilian-Portuguese, "abobrinhas" is the art of talking shit. Or, as one blogger refers to it,"small talk; useless information, foolish chit-chat; non-sense; fluff." Little Pumpkins (the literal translation of "abobrinhas"
Brazil-U.S. Business Council
1615 H Street, NW Washington,  DC   20062         brazilcouncil.org
Phone: (202) 463-5485     Fax: (202) 463-3126 
Brazilian Consulates in USA

Permanent Mission of Brazil to the United Nations, New York
un.int/brazil

U.S.-Brazil Relations by brazilny.org [NYC Consulate]
 
Read an updated story of the birth of the Americas as Carnaval.com salutes the capital of global Carnaval as they come into their own as a top ten country and a rival to the USA in influencing the new global culture of the 3rd millennium.
Isis Rising
The Story of Lent is the story of the merging of the two official religions of Rome, Mithraism and the cult of the Great Mother Goddess Cybele with the early Christian church to give us the Roman Catholic church. There are many who believe that the strongest ancient root of Carnaval is traced not to the Roman Winter solstice celebration of Saturnalia or even those of the wine god Dionysos or his later Occidental name of Bacchus but rather the Egyptian goddess Isis. Isis is known as the Goddess of 10,000 names and has a lot in common with Brazil's Iemanja.
 

 

 

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What does money buy after all?

 

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As of Carnaval 2009, the dollar is on the rise from its seven year low against the real following an all-time low in July of 2008. The Dollar is up 30% from Carnaval time last year or
 1 United States Dollars
are worth
2.30 Brazilian Reais

With the global economic collapse, tourism is down across the board in 2009. The 2009 Carnaval has struggled and while international visitors will be high, it may be down by as much as 30% from the record 705,000 tourists who visited Rio for Carnaval 2008.

After many years of decline, the dollar has continued a major climb timed with the ascendancy of USA President Barack Obama

Brazil on Jan 21, 2009 cut its basic interest rate by one percentage point to 12.75 percent to start "a process of flexibility to the country's monetary policy."  Despite the cuts, Brazil's real interest rate (interest rate minus inflation rate) is still the highest in the world. The country's inflation rate reached 5.9 percent in 2008.

 2009 - Brazilian Reals to 1 USD (invert)
Average Rates

January 2007

2.13757 BRL   (23 days average)

January 2008
1.77227 BRL   (23 days average)
January 2009
2.31155 BRL   (21 days average)
July 2009
1.93258 BRL   (23 days average)
November 2009
1.7284 BRL   (21 days average)
January 2010
1.76599 BRL   (17 days average)

At its introduction in June, 1994, the exchange rate of the real was close to par with the US dollar. Since then, it has fluctuated widely and at one point, in mid August, 2000, dropped as low as R$ 4.03 = USD$ 1.00.

 
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